A blowtorch is a device for heating the surface of ejector-type objects. This device is used for various actions (melting and heating of metals, burning old paint layers, when disassembling rusted threaded connections, for warming up a car engine and other works). There are various types of this device (kerosene, on alcohol and so on).
The difference between the modifications is insignificant; it can be expressed in a slight change in one of the fixture elements or in the volume of the fuel tank. For example, a kerosene machine differs from an alcohol device by its pipe position. The exception is the gas burner, the principle of operation and the structure of which are somewhat different from other types.
Description and characteristics of the device on liquid fuel
This type of heating mechanisms include lamps that run on gasoline, alcohol and kerosene. The following common basic device nodes for all types can be distinguished:
- fuel tank;
- safety rod;
- siphon tube;
- a cup for heating;
- coil (burner tube);
- a pump consisting of a handle, piston and valve;
- filler hole and plug;
- valve (stopcock);
- nozzle (fuel jet stream guide);
- lamp handle;
- air gap;
- burner cover;
- air propeller.
The blowtorch burns liquid fuel in the nozzle, producing a fairly large jet of open flame.
A distinctive feature of the device on gasoline - the rod to increase the heat capacity.
Typical characteristics of the device:
- tank volume - 0.5-2 liters;
- supply of a jet of fuel from a reservoir - length up to 0.15 m;
- pressure on fuel - 2 atm;
- Consumption of combustible material - about 1 l / hour.
In addition to these differences, devices with different types of fuel differ in the diameter of the burner opening (the lighter the combustible material, the smaller the size).Back to table of contents
Features of the operation of the apparatus on liquid fuel
The principle of the devices is to use the heat generated by the burning of fuel vapor. The flame temperature can reach up to 1100 ° С. For the flow of fuel through the siphon tube to the evaporator, air pressure is required (1-2 atm). This is done using a pump. For the formation of a flame, access of oxygen is required, which is supplied from the airspace around the apparatus automatically.
The operation of the mechanisms operating on liquid combustible material can be carried out in the following order:
- Fill the device reservoir with fuel to 2/3 of the volume.
- Release the air from the tank through the valve, located in the filler plug, and plug.
- Heat the evaporator. To do this, in the cup under this node you need to pour combustible material and ignite.
- Gradually start pumping air into the tank with a pump. At the same time, working pressure values should be achieved only with full heating of the evaporator.
- Open the stopcock, at this moment a flame should appear in the burner. The intensity of the fuel supply is regulated by a pipeline valve. If the flame is not uniform, you must carefully clean the nozzle with a needle or a thin wire.
- After completion of work, extinguish the instrument for heating by turning the valve in until it stops. After cooling the body of the device, you need to release air through the valve.
Scheme homemade blowtorch on liquid fuel.
When working with a blowtorch, you must follow the established safety rules:
- It is necessary to use fuel intended by the manufacturer. Do not pour gasoline into a kerosene lamp, since these substances have different densities and evaporation rates.
- It is forbidden to open the fuel tank cap when it is heated. This may cause an explosion, causing serious damage to the human body. In addition, nearby objects will be damaged and a fire may occur.
- It is strictly forbidden to fill the reservoir of the device during its operation or immediately after the flame is attenuated. It is necessary to cool the device for 2 hours (minimum).
- With prolonged use of the blowtorch (several hours), it is necessary to periodically interrupt operation and cool the device, since when the fixture body is heated above 50 ° C, a metal reservoir may break from excessive pressure.
Characteristics and principle of operation of a gas burner
This type of heating tool is a safer device. Distinctive characteristics of the gas apparatus:
- lack of air injection into the tank or reservoir;
- light weight and easy operation;
- various volumes of gas cylinder;
- it is possible to use the device for an extended heating period;
- no toxic fumes;
- high heating power;
- no need to heat the evaporator.
Typical device gas apparatus:
Gas blowtorch is small and allows you to use the device for a long period.
- case with a connector for a replaceable cartridge;
- torch tip (made of brass or other alloys);
- gas bottle;
- flame regulating valve with valve;
- hose for connection with a balloon (for some models);
- automatic ignition device.
General characteristics of a gas blowtorch:
- flame temperature - up to 1350 ° С;
- heating power - up to 1900 W;
- gas consumption - 0.1-0.3 kg / hour.
Requirements for devices for purchase
When purchasing tools for heating, it is recommended to carefully inspect the fixture, since even minor defects in manufacturing can be causes of an accident.
When choosing a device can be guided by the following information:
- tanks for liquid fuels should be made whole, elongated from durable metal or sealed with seams;
- Steel parts must be galvanized and coated with enamel paint;
- brass elements must have a polished surface;
- must have a safety valve.
In addition to visual inspection, it is recommended to perform a test ignition. Requirements for a quality device:
- the jet of fuel supply must be even around the perimeter of the hole;
- smooth, uniform flame with a bluish tinge;
- lack of soot when burning;
- the pump should work smoothly, without delays;
- the thread of the connection on the parts must be complete (free of defects, potholes, and so on);
- pump valve must be leak tight.
Soldering lamps are simple and convenient for use in living conditions. The device of these devices does not cause difficulties at operation. However, you should follow basic safety precautions.