For most Russians, a soldering iron is not an essential tool. In this regard, many consider its purchase inexpedient, preferring to spend money on something more necessary. In the meantime, in some households sometimes something breaks, and repairing without a soldering iron sometimes seems impossible. What to do? Is it really necessary to use so carefully stored savings and buy an instrument that is likely to gather dust on the shelf for many years? Do not rush. It turns out that there are many things around that can be used instead of a soldering iron.
At home, a soldering iron is not an essential tool, so you can use its substitutes.
Method number 1: current
It is necessary to cook:
- solder with rosin;
- two wires;
- simple pencil;
- "Crocodile" clip.
This method allows you to do not only without a soldering iron, but without access to the power grid, if, of course, the battery has a charge. The sequence of actions is as follows:
The composition of the welding pencil.
- Connect the two wires that need to be soldered, and put in place of soldering two or three turns of solder with rosin inside.
- Connect one of the wires to either pole of the battery.
- After removing a fragment of a wooden shell 5-10 mm long on one side of a simple pencil, connect a graphite rod using a wire to the second pole of the battery.
- To solder the wires, touch for a moment with the rod of a simple pencil to solder. Under the action of an electric arc discharge, it will immediately melt, and the soldering without a soldering iron will be successfully implemented.
The described method combines soldering and welding. It can be used to connect thin wires whose diameter does not exceed 1 mm. By increasing the arc discharge time, you can weld the copper wires without solder.
Note that this method requires some skill, so first it is better to practice on unnecessary details or waste.Back to table of contents
Method number 2: the use of solder containing tin
This method involves the use of tin-lead alloy with 62% tin content as solder (this is a tretnik). With it, you can solder small parts or wires of copper, iron and zinc. You must do the following:
Instead of a soldering iron, you can solder with a special alloy of tin and lead.
- Treat the surfaces of the parts to be joined with an emery paper or a file.
- Using a brush, apply a solution of zinc chloride on the joined areas. In the absence of such, it can be prepared independently by dissolving zinc shavings in hydrochloric acid. Contact with skin hydrochloric acid causes severe burns, so all operations with it, follow the safety precautions.
- On one of the parts put a small amount of "tretnik".
- Warm the part with the alloy laid on it with a candle or an alcohol burner until it begins to melt.
- Attach a second part to the semi-fluid tretnik.
- Warm up the soldering point well, then let it cool. To speed up the cooling process, you can drop a few drops of water.
If it is necessary to solder two wires, attach one end of the terminator in the form of a strip or thin rod to the junction.
In the absence of components from which zinc chloride can be prepared, dry ammonia or borax can act as substitutes for it. Wires in electrical connections before soldering are best treated with an alcohol solution of rosin.
The tretnik is used for a tinning of details from copper or iron. To do this, the part is lubricated with a solution of zinc chloride, then it is heated well and the alloy is spread over its surface.Back to table of contents
Method number 3: use a small clip
It is necessary to cook:
Required tools for a soldering iron from a clip: 1 - metal clip, 2 - flat-nose pliers, 3 - autogenous lighter, 4 - slotted (flat) screwdriver.
- metal clip;
- autogenous lighter;
- slotted (flat) screwdriver.
It turns out that the usual clip can also be used instead of a soldering iron. For this you need:
- Bend one curl, partially straightening the clip, and grab it in the middle with pliers so that both its parts protrude from different sides.
- Now the part where there is more metal, you need to heat the cigarette lighter.
- After some time, the heat spreads to the second part, which will play the role of a soldering iron tip. You won't have to wait long, as the clip warms up pretty quickly.
- To test the readiness of this improvised instrument, bring the free end of the clip to the tin. If the required temperature is reached, it will begin to melt.
In this method, tin is used as a solder. A small amount of it must be put on the parts to be joined, after which you can proceed to soldering. Using a paper clip instead of a soldering iron, one end of it must be kept in a lighter flame, otherwise the tool will instantly cool. It is best to entrust this task assistant.
The clip soldering iron is most suitable for soldering chips and other very small parts.Back to table of contents
Method number 4: soldering with wrapping
If you need to solder two wires with a diameter of up to 2 mm, use this ingenious solution. You must do the following:
A battery-based soldering iron can be used to connect thin wires.
- Remove the insulation from the wires (about 30 mm) and strip them.
- Putting bare wires on each other, twist them.
- From the bottom, attach the foil to the junction and lift its edges so that the wires appear to be in the gutter. The thickness of the foil should be about 0.08 mm, it can be removed from the old capacitor.
- Put solder on top of the wires. It is a mixture of rosin (1 part) and finely planed solder POS-30 (4 parts).
- Wrap soldered solder spot with foil.
- Now the foil with all its contents must be heated. To do this, it is not necessary to use a burner, you can do with three matches, the flame of which must be held under the soldering spot for half a minute.
- After the preform has cooled, remove the foil. If done correctly, the wires will be securely soldered.
Method number 5: patching holes
If there is a small hole (up to 5-7 mm) in a metal dish or any part, it can be sealed by soldering, but without using a soldering iron. The metal around the repair site should be cleaned with sandpaper, and brick powder can also be used for this purpose. If the product is covered with enamel, it must be knocked down so that a clean metal about 5 mm wide is formed around the hole. Enamel can be removed with a sharp metal object, such as a nail, which should not be hit hard several times.
The cleaned metal must be treated with pickled hydrochloric acid, and then pour a small amount of rosin on it.
After that, from the inside, a piece of tin or tretsenter, described above, is placed on the hole and heated on an alcohol burner. In the absence of such, you can use a stove, electric stove or even a kerosene lamp. The tin will melt and the hole will be sealed.Back to table of contents
Method number 6: pencil welding
Soldering products can be done using a special pencil, today these are sold in many stores. Pencil must be lit from any source of fire. When burning the material from which the pencil is made, begins to melt and drip.
When the required amount is in the connection area, the parts need to be pressed tightly against each other and kept in this way until the solder cools and seizes. This way you can bond not only metal elements (parts do not even need to be cleaned of rust), but also ceramics, heat-resistant plastic or glass. The connection remains stable at temperatures not exceeding 180 ° C. The length of the pencil lasts for several dozen small connections.Back to table of contents
Method number 7: cold brazing
In the absence of a soldering iron, electrical contact between the two conductors can be restored by means of a special composition. Such materials are produced by both domestic manufacturers (Kontaktol K-13) and foreign (Quick Grip, etc.). The basis of cold soldering is an electrically conductive adhesive, so it can fully replace traditional soldering. The main thing is that the operation was carried out at a positive temperature:
- Before using a similar composition, wires or other connected elements must be cleaned of oxides and treated with a degreasing agent.
- Next, apply one layer of the composition, and after aging in 15-20 minutes - the second.
- Now the parts can be connected. Cold brazing dries out within 1.5-3 hours at an ambient air temperature of 18 ° C, but it is recommended to turn on the repaired device only in a day.
From one such soldering iron of a standard volume (0.8-1.4 ml) you can squeeze a strip of 100-150 mm long, so that the resource of cold soldering is quite decent.
If you live far away from specialty stores, you can prepare a means for cold soldering yourself. To do this, it is enough to mix a certain amount of small metal sawdust with nitro-glue or varnish. The finished mixture with a narrow spatula or a pointed match must be applied to the junction. If the parts to be joined are on the substrate, it is better to attach a magnet to its back side. When connecting thin elements (wires or tracks) to the place of soldering, it is better to lay a small sheet of paper or plastic film with a slot, and only then apply the composition. Cold soldering will get only at the place of connection (through the slot), and the surrounding elements will remain clean.