With all the variety of types of modern flooring, linoleum remains one of the most sought-after materials for final flooring. Soldering linoleum at the same time is the main method of laying material.
For high-quality joints of linoleum joints, a welding method is used.
The basis of the material, the type and shape of the floors set the tone in choosing the type of floor covering. Developed new modern adhesives. However, in our time, the soldering of linoleum has not lost its relevance and interests many people. Soldering linoleum can be made at home with your own hands.
The structure of linoleum.
Linoleum is a roll floor covering based on various materials. The following types are mainly used: natural, polyvinyl chloride, nitrocellulose, rubber (relin) and alkyd (glyphthalic). The most common is PVC linoleum in various designs. It can be either single-layer (monolithic) or multi-layered. Fiberglass is introduced into the multilayer structures, which strengthens the material. Natural linoleum is made on the basis of natural resins using other natural components - oils, wood flour, mineral dyes. The main advantage is durability and ecological purity.
In terms of their structure, linoleums are subdivided into baseless, on a foam base and on a warm base. Baseless is most often a single layer thickness of 1.2-2 mm. Linoleum on the basis of foam is a type of multilayer materials and has a thickness of up to 4 mm. The coating of such material is made of foamed plastic. When laying it on the floor must always use adhesive composition. Linoleum on a warm basis, which contains an outer polymer (usually PVC) layer and a lower layer (base) of jute or felt, is widely used. The thickness of this material reaches 5 mm or more.
Laying linoleum on the floor can be done in different ways. The easiest way - in small rooms laying one sheet with fastening the edges of the plinth. Laying can be done using double-sided tape without adhesive composition. For rooms with a sufficiently large area, linoleum is laid on glue or mastic. When laying the material consisting of strips, any method leaves open the question of connecting the edges of the strips of linoleum.Back to table of contents
Features of the process of joining edges
Types of welding linoleum.
If the edges of the linoleum strips are not joined together, then over time, due to shrinkage of the material, the strips will disperse, forming a gap. The same effect is obtained when filling the seam or joining with adhesive tape. This makes it necessary to firmly join the edges by soldering (welding). Currently, there are two methods of welding - cold and hot.
The choice of the method of joining the edges depends on a number of factors. First, the configuration of the seams can be quite complicated - turns, various shapes. In this case, you should use cold welding, based on the use of special adhesives. The same can be applied to short seams. If the seam is sufficiently straight and long, then a hot method is preferable - soldering using a hot air gun.
When performing strip edge welding, certain requirements are imposed on the seam being formed. First, it must be durable, i.e. to withstand the shrinkage of the material and mechanical stress when using the floor for its intended purpose. Secondly, the seam must be sufficiently tight so that the cement dust from the concrete screed does not penetrate. In addition, the seam should not be evident, i.e. should almost blend with the general background of linoleum both in color and in texture. This condition determines that the seam cannot protrude above the surface of the linoleum or, conversely, create a notch.
When hot soldering occurs another condition. The material should not burn. This limits the use of this method for foamed linoleum, as they are subject to destruction when exposed to high temperatures. Other rather loose fibrous materials behave similarly.
Welding edges of linoleum is cold or hot. In the cold process, cold-seal adhesive is used, which has a different composition for different coating materials. Glue is sold in tubes with indication of the application group - for PVC, for new linoleum and for aged materials. Glue fills the seam between tightly compressed strips and after curing provides sufficient mechanical strength of the joint.Back to table of contents
Features of hot soldering
The scheme of hot welding linoleum.
Hot soldering involves heating the edges of linoleum to temperatures up to 600ºC, which causes them to melt. The seam is filled with an additive cord having a composition close to the material of linoleum. The edges in the molten state are pressed to each other, and the tourniquet, by melting, fills the entire volume of the seam, which ensures reliable soldering. The thermal effect is produced by a special high-capacity building hair dryer. For welding at home it is enough to use a heat gun with a capacity of 1.5-2 kW. This device allows you to create a directional flow of air heated in the temperature range from 100 to 650ºC. Modern hair dryers have a smooth or stepwise adjustment of the flow temperature in this range. In addition, they are able to provide adjustment of the speed and power of the air flow, which makes it possible to change the heating time of the material. Thermal effects also depend on the approach of the nozzle to the linoleum surface. So, the discharge of the hair dryer to a height of 8 mm usually leads to a decrease in the flow temperature on the surface of the material by 2 times.
When soldering it is important to ensure complete melting of the filler wire and tight pressing of the edges. The quality of the connection depends on the reliability of fixing the edges of linoleum. The risk of the edges moving relative to each other both in the plane of the floor and in the vertical direction should be eliminated as much as possible.
As the filler material should be used finished harness. This harness is implemented on coils, has a triangular, circular or trapezoidal shape of the cross section. The harness must be selected by the material of the outer layer of linoleum, by its thickness, as well as by the color of the coating. Sometimes a contrasting design method is used. In this case, the color of the rope is noticeably different from the color of the linoleum coating, but the requirement for the quality of the seam is greatly increased. High quality and a wide range of polymer braids are firms LG and Tarkett.Back to table of contents
Linoleum must be trimmed using a cutter and a ruler.
The quality of the seams of linoleum during hot brazing depends on the thoroughness of the preliminary preparation of the edges of linoleum. The edges of the linoleum strips should be smooth. They must be carefully cut using a long metal ruler and a sharp knife. It is even better to use a special knife - edge cutter. Edges firmly glued to the floor, while tightly pressed together butt. The quality of fixing the edges determines the risk of their lifting up during welding, so the edge after laying on the glue should be rolled with a roller.
The next step is to make a groove for the filler rope. To this end, a groove (groove) is cut through the entire length of the seam using a special grooving chisel. The depth of the groove should be 2/3 of the thickness of the linoleum, and the width - 2-3 mm.
After that, a thorough cleaning of the linoleum surface and the entire volume of the seam is carried out. It is advisable to use a vacuum cleaner. On the heat gun, you need to fix a special nozzle for welding, which has an additional side channel for feeding the harness to the soldering zone.Back to table of contents
Linoleum soldering process
To solder the linoleum it is necessary to heat the heat gun to 400 °.
Soldering linoleum begins when the heat gun warms the air flow to 400 °. The filler harness is inserted into the side opening of the channel in the nozzle of the dryer. The nozzle of the heat gun is supplied to the beginning of the groove in the seam. After holding for 1-2 seconds, the hairdryer slowly and evenly moves along the seam. The harness is constantly fed into the nozzle channel. Melt additive must fill the seams and slightly protrude above the surface of the linoleum. So is done the seam to the middle of the floor. Then the same operation is performed from the other end of the seam to dock with the end of the previous seam. In the place of the joint, the masses are deposited on each other at a length of 2-3 cm. In the process of soldering, the uniformity of filling of the seam should be monitored. If the mass flow decreases, it is necessary to reduce the speed of the hair dryer and increase the temperature of the air flow.
Before complete cooling of the polymer with the help of a special scapula (crescent-shaped knife), the nodules and tubercles of the mass are cut off. The seam is given time to complete cooling and hardening, after which all the irregularities are cut again with the same knife, more thoroughly. Similarly, the soldering of linoleum at all the seams.
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Finally, the seam is polished with fine sandpaper or with the help of a grinder.
Tools for soldering linoleum.
For soldering linoleum need the following special tool:
- heat gun with nozzle for welding linoleum;
- grooving chisel;
- cutter (knife) for edges;
- crescent knife.
In addition, you will need the usual tool:
- sanding pelt;
- putty knife;
- paint brush;
- paint roller;
- metal meter line;
- a vacuum cleaner.
Many are faced with the need for laying linoleum on the floor. The connection of the edges of linoleum is recommended by the method of hot soldering. Such an operation can be performed at home with the help of a hot air gun and some special tools.