An electric soldering iron is a hand-held tool that holds metal components together with a solder. Solder is a metal or its alloy having a melting point lower than the materials being joined. In the soldering alloys are used, made on the basis of tin, lead, copper, nickel, etc. The solder heated to a liquid state fills all the gaps of the parts to be soldered.
A set of additional tips in a ceramic soldering iron, increases its functionality.
Soldering irons with different amperage and power are used for the safe operation of a person and depending on the voltage in the electrical supply network.
The device and the principle of operation of the EPSN type soldering iron
Diagram of the elements of the soldering iron.
The main elements of an electric soldering iron are:
- electrical cord with plug.
The core of red copper is heated nichrome spiral to the melting point of the solder. Due to the high thermal conductivity of copper, the rod is made of copper material. The heating element transfers heat to the sting of the appliance.
The rod end of the soldering iron is a working part of the tool with a wedge-shaped form at the end. This is called the soldering tip.
The rod is inserted into the metal tube, pre-wrapped in an insulating material. This may be fiberglass or mica. On the insulator is wound nichrome thread, which serves as a heating element.
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Main types of soldering device
The design of the soldering iron.
In addition to the electric soldering iron with a spiral heater (EPSN), which is widely used in everyday life, there are a number of other types of soldering tools.
Soldering irons differ according to the method of heat transfer and soldering, the type of energy consumed and other indicators.
Here are some of them:
- Induction soldering iron. The heating of such a tool is based on an inductor coil. The ferromagnetic tip has a magnetic field created by the coil. Due to this, the core is heated. Solder such a device to a certain temperature value. When the magnetic property of the coating is lost, the heating stops.
- The use of ceramic rods has a number of significant advantages: rapid heating, longer tool life and optimal adjustment of the selected soldering modes (temperature and power).
- Soldering irons with pulsed voltage supply to the rod have a wide use in radio amateurs. The shape of such a soldering iron resembles a gun. The essence is that when you press the trigger and hold it, the tip warms up. After the trigger is released, the trigger is released and the soldering device is cooled.
- An extremely autonomous soldering device is a device that uses gas as a heater. Such gas soldering irons can be used in any conditions. Enough to have access to the gas source.
- Another type of stand-alone device is a rechargeable soldering iron. The work is based on the consumption of small power (up to 15 W). Such soldering devices are used for simple and small soldering work.
Choice of a soldering iron
Depending on the personal preferences of the user and the functional purpose, you can decide on the type of soldering device. In the absence of electrical voltage, self-powered devices are well suited. For amateur radio operators (soldering chips) and other soldering work in domestic conditions, soldering irons with a pulsed or nichrome heater are necessary.
At home, when working with soldering devices, it is necessary to observe technical and fire safety measures. Adequate lighting and a well-ventilated room will be the key to the comfortable work of the master plumber.