Each person may be faced with the need to weld parts, but not everyone knows how to use a welding machine. It can be used at home in the country or in the garage. However, not every person will be able to use it qualitatively from the first time. In order to know how to use it, you can read the instructions and manuals.
Welding is a technological process based on the connection of parts by heating.
There are special courses for training, which teach how to use the device. Before you start to carry out welding work, you need to know a number of rules for using this device and safety precautions when working with it. For a start, it is worth knowing what types of devices are, and get acquainted with their principle of operation, with the possible types of weldings that can be done using this or that equipment.
Types of welding machines
Welding is the process of soldering two or more parts. This occurs by heating the parts between which an interatomic bond is established, binding them together and making them integral. There are various types of work with the device and each has its own principle of application. Welding machines are of various types:
Types of welding machines.
- inverter type.
Transformer are almost the only type of most welding machines that can work with both direct current and alternating current. They reduce the mains voltage to the desired level in order to start welding. Of course, when using AC, the probability of a non-constant electric arc is high and because of this, the seams may not be of very good quality. The advantages of this type of apparatus are its ease of use, reliability and low cost. But it is also worth knowing that it is rather large and heavy, which is attributed to its shortcomings.
Automatic welding semiautomatic devices got their name due to the fact that they have the ability to automatically feed the electrode wire to the electric arc. Such devices are used in case accuracy and subtlety of welding seams are necessary. When using these devices, two types of protected gas are used:
Gases used for welding.
Gas from the gas cylinder is fed through wires to the burner, and then to the zone of the electric arc. Some models of semi-automatic are universal. They can weld metal using both gas and wire.
Generator sets are integrated welding equipment. They combine the welding machine and the generator itself, which is powered by diesel fuel or gasoline. In the absence of power supply, it is an indispensable welding machine.
Inverter welding machines are the most modern at present. They are mobile, multifunctional and easy to use. The devices themselves convert alternating current into direct current. They are not only protected from power surges and are equipped with a cooling system that prevents them from overheating, but also have very low energy consumption. Inverter welding machines, due to their ability to adjust some characteristics of the electric arc, make it possible to make thin and neat seams.Back to table of contents
The most common types of welds
If with types of welding machines everything is clear, then now it is worth finding out what types of welding are. Since welding works depend not only on the machine, but also on the type of welding. There are three main types:
Classification of the main types of welding.
- manual arc welding;
- gas-shielded welding;
- semi-automatic welding.
Manual arc welding is a process with a consumable electrode. A melting electrode is a wire that, during its melting process, holds the welded parts together. Arc welding is often welded ferrous metals.
Gas-shielded welding is also manual. Welding is performed at a constant current, but there are cases when it is used also at alternating current, for example, when a material such as aluminum is boiled. This type of welding is characterized by the fact that it gives high quality welds that require accuracy.
In semi-automatic welding, the role of an electrode is played by wire, which is automatically fed to the place where welding takes place. It is usually used in welding non-ferrous metals, thin sheets of steel and industrial production. This type of welding is perfect for a large amount of welding.
In addition, there are other types of welding. They are used mainly in industrial production. For example, in resistance welding, materials are pressed tightly against each other and they are heated to a state of melting, in which they are deformed and compressed. And in plasma welding, the heat source is the plasma jet. Its use saves time. It does not need additional machining of parts and allows welding of any materials. During spot welding, the parts are clamped between two wires of the electrode and form welded points when current is applied.Back to table of contents
Before using the welding machine, it is important to read the operating instructions and familiarize yourself with the safety regulations.
Protective equipment for the welder.
After all, if during the work to make any mistake, then you can seriously harm your health. Therefore, the study of the rules should be approached as responsibly as possible.
First of all it is important to pick up workwear. Without it, you can not even begin to carry out welding work. You will need:
- welding mask;
- welding jacket;
- shoes for work.
It is forbidden to wear light, casual, naked clothes. There is a high probability of getting burns from molten metal and irradiation from an electric arc.
Next, you need to prepare a place where welding work will be carried out. The surface on which the material will be after welding should be as flat as possible. All combustible mixture must be removed from the premises. Prying eyes should not be, because you can not look at welding with the naked eye. The room must be well ventilated so that the welding machine does not overheat. All extinguishing media must be easily accessible.
It is important to choose the right and high-quality electrodes. Absolutely each type of electrodes has its own task in work. Therefore, it is necessary to choose the electrodes that are most suitable for the materials and type of welding that will be carried out. The electrode must be of the same thickness as the material to be welded. Before work they must be dry and intact.Back to table of contents
How to use the welding machine
Safety during welding.
Before you start welding, you should practice on a piece of metal. The heated electrode wire must be walked a couple of times on the surface of the material. At contact of metal with an electrode, flashes of sparks usually appear.
For the working material need to reinforce one of the wires. The second wire, brought to the electric holder, which, in turn, holds the electrode, you need to bring to the metal. Lightly striking the material with an electrode and retracting it, you will see that a welding arc has formed. It has such an effect on the electrode that it begins to melt. Through the mask you can see the detail before the formation of the arc, then it is darkened to protect the eyes. During melting, the metal of the electrode welds the material, filling the existing recesses, which were formed by the action of an eclectic arc. The electrode should be from the metal at a distance of 3 to 6 mm. With respect to the welding material, it must be held perpendicularly. It is not necessary to move the electrode quickly, it needs to be held in place for about 2 seconds. So the material will be better welded.
Do not forget that the burning of the arc is primarily dependent on sufficient amperage. If it is small, then the arc will begin to fade. When the current is large, the metal will burn and spray in different directions.
After welding, you need to let the metal cool down for a while. It should not be red and hot. For rapid cooling, the metal can be immersed in water, but this can compromise the integrity of the weld. It is worth using a wire brush to clean the newly welded seam of debris. With little experience with the welding machine, the seams can be uneven and porous. If desired, you can repeat the work.
The welding machine will not pose any danger if you follow all measures of caution and carefully read the rules for using the machine.