Use a soldering iron should be able to every man. Today we will talk about soldering boards. Solder boards are usually tin-lead solder, which melts at a temperature of 180-200 ° C. It is better to use the low-melting composition of Wood, the melting point of which is 70 ° C.
Adaptation device for discharging electronic components from the printed circuit board.
Together with the solder flux is used, which protects parts from oxidation during soldering. In the composition of the flux to work with the boards should not be acid. The most common flux is rosin. You can grind natural pine rosin into powder and dissolve in ethyl or boric alcohol. Liquid rosin is applied to the right places with a brush.
Preparation for soldering
Requirements for soldering equipment are as follows:
The sequence of service conclusions parts.
- The best option is a soldering station. It includes everything you need (at a cost of 800 rubles).
- Power ordinary soldering iron should not exceed 40 watts.
- The supply voltage can be 12 V, 18 V, 24 V, 220 V. There are also gas tools.
- It is desirable to have a set of several tips of different shapes and sizes.
- Very comfortable heat-resistant sting.
- Proper flux sold in syringes will ensure good soldering quality.
- Solder is most often used in the form of a wire with a diameter of 1-5 mm. The most common diameter is 1.5-2 mm.
- Need a knife, small nippers, tweezers.
Soldering iron preparation
Brand new soldering iron needs to be prepared for work. When turned on, oily substances usually burn with a sufficient amount of smoke. After burning out, the soldering iron is turned off and cooled. The soldering tip should be cleaned with a file. Then again it is included in the network, the stripped sting is lowered into the rosin and touch the solder. The working surface should be covered with an even silver layer of solder.
Soldering iron for working with boards can have a power of from 15 to 30 watts. A more powerful tool is used to solder thick wires and large radio components. Often used soldering iron, which is called a soldering pencil.
Suction for solder.
In recent years, a soldering station can be purchased in stores. Experts note that working with such a device is much easier than with a conventional soldering iron. Such an installation has several advantages:
- It is possible to control the working temperature with an accuracy of a degree during soldering.
- With the help of the station you can solder parts made of copper, steel, aluminum, polypropylene, plastic and other materials.
- The station has durability.
But it also has drawbacks, which should include a rather high cost and high costs of electricity.
Soldering boards is much easier than working with ordinary wires. Parts fit perfectly in calibrated holes. There is no need to support them with vise, pliers and other devices.Back to table of contents
Instructions for soldering parts on the board
The installation of microcircuits and other similar parts occurs in several steps:
- The detail is inserted into the place prepared for it.
- The tip of the heated soldering iron with the solder is brought to the place of soldering.
- Solder is applied to the terminals of the part and the contacts of the board with a thin even layer.
- The soldering tip is quickly removed from the place of soldering.
Soldering iron at 12 volts.
A heated soldering iron should touch the board and the contacts of the part at the same time. It can not be removed until the soldering point is covered with an even layer of solder. It takes no more than a second. Skill comes very quickly.
Excess solder is removed from the soldering area very simply. It is necessary to take a piece of copper braid of stranded wire, bring the end to the place of soldering. All solder will go into it. The board will only have an even layer, sufficient to hold the part in place and to ensure electrical contact.Back to table of contents
Soldering to the SMD board details
SMD components are powerless. They have no traditional conclusions in the form of wires. With the board, these parts are connected using contact pads located on the body of the part. They are soldered with a soldering iron with a capacity of 10-12 W, a soldering station. It is desirable to modify the sting of a regular soldering iron, making it split or torn.
It is possible to wound a copper wire with a diameter of 1 mm on the sting of a powerful soldering iron, making working tips from the ends of the wire. Such a tool is used to work with LEDs and other radio elements. The distance between the stings can be adjusted. At any time, such a nozzle is easy to remove and set aside until better times.
Adaptation to the soldering iron for soldering small parts.
On electronic cards, there are often microcircuits with a SOIC package. They are best to solder and unsolder with hot air using a soldering station. But not everyone has it. You can use a soldering iron with a capacity of 10 watts. Places to be soldered, you need to lubricate the alcohol-rosin liquid flux, legs - to warm the soldering iron. The sting should be very thin. If the distance between the legs of the microcircuit is 1.25 mm, the width of the tip cannot be greater than 1 mm.
Transistors can be in a DPAK package. It is recommended to solder them with a 40 W soldering iron. Radio components are installed in place, solder the findings. Then they press the transistor to the board and simultaneously heat it with a soldering iron. As soon as he gets a little thin, the soldering is finished.Back to table of contents
To solder, you need to know the features of working with the tool:
- An insufficiently heated soldering iron will not allow high-quality soldering. The outward sign of insufficient warming is a dull shade of solder. The mechanical strength of such a compound is very low.
- The overheated tool also does not allow to get a high-quality seam: the overheated solder will not flow.
- To periodically clean the soldering tip, clean it with a damp sponge.
- Wires before work need to be tinned. As a flux in this case, you can use an aspirin pill.
- Solder holes in the board can be cleaned like this: melt the solder, enter a wooden toothpick into the hole and rotate it for a few seconds until the solder solidifies. After that, a toothpick is removed from the board.
- Some soldering irons are equipped with a sting made of metal-ceramic. They can not be cleaned with a file, you can only wipe with a damp sponge.
- Some control boards at the factory are soldered with lead-free solder; flux is used aggressive. Conducting elements after such an operation are destroyed, the board fails. It is recommended to thoroughly tin all current paths with ordinary solder and flux.
Everyone can learn how to solder. To do this, you need to have a soldering iron, and preferably a soldering station. It is recommended to practice on wires, old boards.
The skill is gained quickly.
The main thing is to learn how to feel the temperature of the soldering iron tip. It can be controlled by the color and gloss of the solder. We need high-quality consumables: solder and flux. Everything else is in your hands.