The easiest way of soldering is soldering with a soldering iron; it is available even to ordinary people. But this type of bonding also has some limitations: soldering requires extremely soft solders and not too large parts, since it is very difficult to heat them up.
It is necessary to solder only with soft solders and not very large parts, since it is very difficult to heat them up to a high temperature.
To solder, you need to have everything you need for this process:
- soldering iron;
Soldering irons: types and power
There are various soldering irons: electric (with a ceramic or spiral heating element), induction, gas, etc. In order to solder pointwise, you need to purchase soldering irons with the ability to adjust the heating power. Some types of soldering irons can heat up even on an open fire.
The most affordable and convenient soldering iron is currently becoming electric.
Soldering irons differ in power, which determines the array of heat flow:
- To solder electronic parts, you need a soldering iron up to 40 watts.
- For soldering thin-walled products requires 80-100 watts.
- For especially large parts, such as car radiators, you need a soldering iron with a capacity of up to 550 watts.
Scheme of a soldering iron.
The more detail you want to take for soldering, the greater must be the power of the soldering apparatus. In addition, you also need to pay attention to the thermal conductivity of the material. The greater the thermal conductivity, the higher the power level the tool will need.
As a rule, tin-lead or pure tin solders are used for soldering the most popular type of soldering iron (electric). There are lead-based solders, but they are chemically dangerous, although they give better quality soldering. Food dishes soldered solely tin composition.
With a properly selected flux, the quality and ease of soldering increases significantly. Flux quality affects the strength of the resulting compound. Mainly the flux is prepared by stirring 30 g of zinc chloride and 10 g of ammonium chloride in 60 ml of water. When buying a finished flux, you must take into account the type of material that you plan to solder, so that the flux could destroy its oxidized film.
Pipe soldering scheme.
Soldering with a soldering iron with acid (active flux) cannot be done on electronic components. Soldering acid is suitable for metal structures, as it is an aggressive chemical composition. After the end of soldering, you should definitely erase the remnants of the active flux so that it does not spoil the surface of the material.
For effective soldering of steel, fluxes on an aqueous solution of zinc chloride or acid for soldering based on the same composition are suitable. It is not forbidden to use more active fluxes. In stores a large selection, you can always find the right one.
For "stainless steel" requires a very active flux to destroy the persistent oxidation, which it is covered. Cast iron should be soldered by high-temperature soldering, and for this purpose a simple electric soldering iron will not work. For stainless steel orthophosphorus or flux F-38.Back to table of contents
The presence of the following devices makes it easier to solder with a soldering iron:
- A special stand for a soldering iron will protect the tabletop and other objects from the red-hot tip of the tool. It can be purchased complete with a soldering iron, as well as do it yourself.
- Sponge (can be used for washing dishes). Sponge is very convenient to clean off the tip of the soldering iron residues of substances.
- Special suction or braid for cleaning solder residues from the tip.
- "The third hand." When working with a soldering device, sometimes one hand is still not enough to hold and fix the parts in the desired position that are being worked on.
- Pliers, clamps are needed in order to not accidentally burn yourself by touching the parts to be soldered. They allow you to control the position of the heated elements.
Preparing the device for soldering parts
Types of wire connections for soldering.
When you turn on the new soldering iron in the network may smoke. Do not be afraid: it burns oil. You just need to open the window and ventilate the room.
The most important part of the soldering iron is the tip or the sting. It must be prepared very carefully. You can make it in the form of a screwdriver, sand the sandpaper or process it with a file to give it the shape of a cone, pyramid, etc. If the sting is covered with nickel, then it cannot be processed so as not to damage the protection layer.
The soldering of large and small parts varies:
- For soldering large parts, the area of contact between the tip and the surface of the product must be very large so that the heat is better transferred. A suitable form of the tip of the soldering iron for this case is a round rod with an angular sharpening.
- For soldering small parts fit the shape of a narrow cone, a knife.
A soldering iron with a tip made of copper must be tinned to protect against wear. It is better to do this at the very first connection of the soldering iron to the network, otherwise the tip will ruin the scale of scale. Then the solder can not stick to the sting. What should be done? It is necessary to warm up the tool to the correct temperature, dip the tip into the rosin, melt solder on it and rub it on a piece of wood. As a result, the current part of the tip will be reliably processed with a layer of solder.
Why do I need tin tip? The active flux gradually spoils the sting, and the solder causes it to dissolve. Because of this, you have to constantly sharpen it, sometimes several times per operation.Back to table of contents
Preparation of parts for soldering
To prepare the part, do the following:
- Clean and degrease surfaces with solvents.
- Brush off rust.
- If you are going to work with stainless steel, then it must first be sanded.
What does the soldering iron temperature affect?
First of all, temperature affects the quality of soldering.
At the soldering station, you can use the regulator to set the desired temperature. If there is no regulator, then the temperature is checked with rosin. It should strongly release steam and, as it were, boil, while not burning, but remaining in parts on the sting in the form of droplets.
Overheating of the tool may cause the flux to burn until it is used. How to determine overheating? This is evidenced by a dark-colored oxidative film on the solder at the tip of the tip.Back to table of contents
Parts soldering procedure
This procedure can occur in two ways. But the beginning is the same anyway:
- Preparatory stage for parts (degreasing, cleaning).
- Setting them to the starting position.
- Heating of the soldering iron and wetting of the weld area with a flux.
The first soldering method (solder drain on parts from a soldering iron):
- Melt the solder so that it rests on the tip.
- The sting is pressed down to the soldered parts. In this case, the flux evaporates, and the solder flows to the junction. The tip is driven along the seam, distributing the solder.
The second method of soldering (applying solder directly to the details):
- Soldering iron warm up the working parts.
- Solder put on the part or in the seam between the sting and the part.
- Molten solder flows into the joint between the parts.
The choice of one method or another depends on the size of the components to be soldered. For small ones - the first, and for larger ones - the second.
To solder properly, you need to follow the recommendations:
- Solder should flow. If it is smeared, it means that the parts are not heated, and it is worthwhile to increase the temperature of the device or take a more powerful tool.
- Do not use too much solder.
- High-quality weld seam has a bright metallic luster.
- Excess active flux must be removed from the surface with alkaline soap.
Compliance with the tips and recommendations will help you cope with such a task as soldering with a soldering device. After the first experience you make sure that it is not so difficult.