Today, there is a wide variety of ways to connect metal. But in order to understand how to put the welding seam correctly, it is necessary to study the principles and methods of welding in more detail. The technical characteristics of the methods are divided into two types:
Characteristics of welded (one-piece) connections.
To demountable include those connections for which it is possible to disconnect parts without disturbing the connecting elements. For example, a bolt and a nut. But the one-piece connection is considered the most durable, since with it the parts are not separated without disturbing the connecting parts. This type includes welding and riveted docking types. If it is necessary to obtain high-quality and reliable joining, the best option would be a welding seam.
Often, craftsmen for welding elements acquire welding devices without any skills and experience in the work. And after failures, they begin to wonder how to put the weld seam correctly.
Principles of the welding process
Different types of welding.
Welding is the process of joining individual metal elements where electric welding is used. The connecting elements melt under the influence of an electric arc and an electrode, which is a rod of metal with a special coating. c and the strength of the weld are largely dependent on various factors:
- welding device;
- current regulator;
- on the size of the electrode used;
- from the classification and skills of the welder.
In the domestic and industrial areas, several types of welding are used, which, in turn, are divided into groups:
- gas press;
The technology of resistance spot welding.
Applying gas-press welding, use an open flame of acetyl-oxygen. The advantage of this method is high performance. This method is widely used in the gas and oil industries. It is common when laying pipelines, and is also widely used in mechanical engineering.
If there is a small voltage in the network, contact welding is often used, but there should be a high value of electric current. With this method, welding spot and butt welding is permissible. Consequently, the seam work easier.
To master the technology of the welding business, you must purchase a welding device. It can be rented, and if it is necessary for long-term work, it will be wiser to buy it. Today's specialty stores can offer a number of welding devices, among which there are also devices equipped with a current regulator.Back to table of contents
Weld Laying Sequence
To learn how to put the weld correctly, it is important to take into account the fact that electrodes should be selected taking into account the thickness of the metal being welded, and the current should be set along the electrodes.
The calculation method is not difficult, for example:
- when using welding transformers with a 1 mm electrode cross section, the current should correspond to 30-40 A;
- A welding inverter with an electrode size of 3 mm requires a current of 80 A, and with a current of 100 A it is possible to perform metal cutting.
Technology of welding seam.
As for the room, it does not matter, but when making welding work to ensure fire safety you need to stock up on a bucket of water. Before you start welding, you need to prepare all the tools so that they are at hand. The parts to be welded at the joints should be cleaned with a metal brush. To the seam was smooth and neat, it is recommended to pre-set the welded billet using clamps or vice.
In order to have an idea of how to work correctly by electric welding, it is advisable to preliminarily practice on welding rollers on a plane, and when performing this process, the best option would be to use electrodes with a cross section of 3 mm, since they are the most common.
It is important to take into account the fact that it is best to use the newly purchased electrodes for work, as long-acquired ones can absorb moisture, which complicates the welding process.
The following actions:
- It is necessary to attach the mass with a clip to the work element;
- The electrode is inserted into the holder.
- The arc is ignited, and one of two methods is used: strike sharply, like a match, or tap on the part to be welded.
- Next, welding is carried out by conducting the electrode over the surface (the angle must be kept at 75 °) while oscillating fractions must be produced, which, according to the principle of operation, resembles the scooping of the arc of a molten metal mass under the crater.
- In conclusion, it turns out a quality smooth seam.
Make a smooth quality seam is easy. It is important to have at least a little knowledge of physics, the necessary high-quality equipment and a little skill.Back to table of contents
Recommendations and nuances when working
In order to properly put the welding seam and produce high-quality electric welding, it is important to choose the right angle of inclination of the electrode. As already noted, in most cases the angle is 75 °, and in order to achieve the arc, you need to strike at the metal, and as soon as a flash appears, the electrode quickly detaches from the surface.
In order for the arc to burn stably, it is important to precisely and correctly adjust the injected current. If the current is insufficient, the arc can instantly go out and the electrode sticks out, with an increase, on the contrary, the metal sprays in different directions and a fire starts.
When welding, the electrode has the ability to melt, it is made smaller in size, which requires its periodic advancement to the elements being welded, but taking into account the preservation of a stable arc. If this is overlooked, the arc will also go out.
During the welding process, a weld pool is formed; it looks like a mixture of a liquid metal and a molten core of a coated electrode. During continuous melting, when the electrode is moved while maintaining the gap, the joint is durable, of high quality, and its technical and mechanical properties will be much higher.
The seams will have a neat and aesthetic look.
Of course, the welding process is a difficult task. Instantly master the skills and skills almost impossible. To master all the nuances and tricks of welding, you need a lot of time, patience and strength. But after mastering professional skills and experience, using various methods of welding, it will be possible to perform not only the joints, but also individual products.