How to solder? First you need to purchase a minimum set of tools. In this set should be:
For soldering, you need to purchase an ordinary 40-watt soldering iron.
- screwdrivers of various sizes and shapes;
- files of different lengths and shapes;
- soldering iron;
- solder (tin);
- flux (rosin).
As for the soldering iron, it is better to purchase the usual version with a power of 40 watts. Such devices are powered from the mains with a voltage of 220 V. For home use of such a device is sufficient. A power regulator can be connected to the soldering iron, which will control the temperature of the tip.
In order to properly solder, it is necessary to become familiar with the main stages of work, materials that can be soldered among themselves. Learning to solder yourself is easy, the main thing is to follow the recommendations and follow the safety rules.
What solder to use
For welding two parts together, you must use a special solder. It is an alloy of tin and lead. It should be noted that the proportion of the two components may be completely different and is selected depending on the purpose. Most often, the solder is an ordinary wire or tube, which is filled with flux. Despite this, solder in the form of wire is more popular, since the flux will be used in any case.
For solder used a special alloy of lead and tin.
Solder marking is carried out taking into account the melting temperature and hardness of the material. For convenience, solders are marked with a code that consists of letters and numbers. For example: POS-60, POS - tin-lead solder. The figure 60 means the percentage of the first material, in this case the alloy contains 60% tin and, accordingly, 40% lead. Solder can be distinguished by color. If it contains more lead, it will have a dark color. This solder melts at higher temperatures. For home soldering, it is best to use POS-60. The melting point of such solder does not exceed 190 ° C. Despite the high percentage of tin content, soldering is very durable.
Fluxes are used to eliminate oxides from the surface of the elements being joined. They will further save the solder and metal from oxidation. Flux well wets the surface of the material. To date, the most popular flux is rosin. This material is made of pine resin. Appearance reminds amber, has a transparent yellowish shade.Back to table of contents
Soldering iron preparation for work
Before you start working with a new soldering iron, you need to prepare it. Preparation of the tool consists in filing its working part - sting.
To do this, you must use the pliers that clamp the sting and the file that handles the tip of the tool. Ideally, the tip of the soldering iron should be dihedral with an angle of at least 30 °.
Most often in the soldering iron heating element is nichrome wire.
It is wound on the tube in which the copper rod is located - the sting (working surface of the tool). Passing through the electric current heats the nichrome wire, which transfers heat to the copper rod. Mica acts as an insulator, which prevents the wire from contacting the protective casing and the metal tube.
It is very important to adhere to safety rules during work, therefore it is necessary to prepare not only all devices, but also additional devices that will facilitate the work process. One of these devices is a stand for a soldering iron. It can be purchased at the store or do it yourself.
For the manufacture of such a stand, it is necessary to prepare a wooden bar of a small shape and a metal cover that is used for canning in the household. From the cover you need to make a small rectangular box. It will continue to form the remnants of solder and flux. After the bath is cut, its edges must be treated with a soldering iron, since they are very sharp. At the end of this bath is attached with screws to a wooden bar.Back to table of contents
How to solder a new soldering iron? The question arises quite often from newbies who have just purchased a tool. First of all, you need to turn on the soldering iron and then wait for it to heat up. After heating, the working surface becomes dark blue.
To eliminate such scale, it is necessary to clamp the sting with pliers and carefully remove it using a file. After that, quickly dip the soldering iron into the rosin and touch it with solder on both sides. After that, the working surface should be carried out on the bottom of the prepared metal bath until the solder covers the entire surface. Periodically, the sting is required to be moistened in rosin.
In order for the soldering process to be carried out qualitatively, the tip of the soldering iron must always be clean and well-groomed, and the layer of solder on it should be distributed evenly. In this form, the work surface should be at the end of the work.Back to table of contents
The first ration: practical recommendations
If soldering is performed for the first time, it is recommended to carry out some test work to begin with. To do this, you need to prepare several pieces of copper wire of different diameters. Work begins with the removal of the insulation layer. To do this, use a sharp stationery knife. This should be done carefully, so as not to damage the copper base. After the top insulation has been removed, a fine oxide formation should be cleaned off the copper wire. The finished wire should be shiny. If the wire is stranded, it is necessary to fluff it, strip it and twist it again. This will provide a more reliable spike.
Purified wires should be dipped into rosin and, heating it with a soldering iron, cover the entire surface of the wire. Then tin needs to process one wire. Solder should be distributed throughout the wire. In order to connect the two wires, they need to be very tightly pressed to each other and bring the soldering iron tip with a drop of solder to the junction. The heated material will spread over the surface and fill all voids and gaps between the wires.
It is not recommended to move the wires during solder, as the connection will be uneven or will not stick. If the surface of the joint is too large and from the first time not everything has joined, then after the solder solidifies, it is necessary to take a small amount of alloy and apply it on the empty space. It is very important not to apply solder in several layers, the material will be consumed, and this will not increase the strength. Ideal soldering is considered if the solder evenly flows around the wires on both sides, and does not keep a lump on one side.
It is necessary to solder with acid only in a ventilated room, as vapors have a very negative effect on the mucous membrane of the eyes and respiratory tract.