More recently, the question of how to connect a welding machine was asked only by professional welders. Today, this topic worries a large army of amateur craftsmen. Modern manufacturers have significantly expanded the concept of "household appliances and tools." Now in this list fall into the various purposes of machines and accessories. Among this variety there is also a welding machine.
Scheme of the device of the welding machine.
Connecting the welding machine can be a problem for those who purchased such a tool for the first time or asked a neighbor. It is necessary to connect correctly, so that during operation you do not damage the electrical wiring, sockets, and the device itself.. The equipment passport, as a rule, does not contain such recommendations.
Varieties of welding machine
It is necessary to decide on the type of "welder" before proceeding to work. There are two types of apparatus: inverter and transformer. Inverter welding machine - light and compact - equipped with a variety of protections and adjustments. There are different models, differing in power and output current, designed for real “pros” and “dummies”. Low weight (up to 5-6 kg) and modest dimensions allow using such devices as portable. They can simply hang on the shoulder and work in the most difficult conditions. The device confidently cooks with electrodes up to 4-5 mm in diameter, and it is quite acceptable.
Classification of welding machines.
The only drawback is maintainability. In the event of a breakdown without knowledge in modern electronics, it will not be possible to repair it yourself. An important piece of advice for newbies from professionals is that the “inverter” cannot be put on the ground. It is necessary to put a wooden or plastic plate under the apparatus.
The basis of transformer welding machines is the traditional scheme: a network transformer with copper windings. From here solid dimensions, decent weight and the corresponding price. The undoubted advantages of such devices include the ability to work with metal of almost any thickness and ease of repair.Back to table of contents
Outlet and wiring requirements
Welding is a serious matter. Care must be taken not to leave themselves and their neighbors without light, do not damage other electrical appliances, and prevent ignition.
Before you begin work, you need to make sure that the power supply allows the connection of the selected welding machine. It is necessary to check the status of traffic jams and machines, to ensure that there are no “bugs”. In homes of old buildings, electrical wiring and sockets are capable of operating at currents up to 10 A. In the passport of any electrical device, its power and rated (operating) current are indicated. When switched on, a current inrush (starting current) occurs, which can exceed the nominal 3 times.
Table of required specifications for the welding machine.
The device of the smooth start-up, eliminating similar throws, is supplied with the invertor device. It can be connected to the network, designed for 16 A. In transformer models, the starting currents can reach 40 A. A typical household outlet will not sustain this - it can catch fire. It is better to connect to the electrical panel using an industrial outlet.
If the operating current of the device exceeds the permissible capacity of the power grid, the voltage in it will “slacken” from 220 V to 140-150 V. This can lead to breakdown of household appliances and cause “sticking” of the welding electrode. It will be impossible to work.
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How to use extension cords
The length of the power wire of the usual “welder” does not exceed 2 m. Therefore, extension cords are often used in the work. Their choice should also be approached carefully. It is known that through the copper wire section of 1 square. mm, you can “skip” a current of no more than 10 A (for aluminum - 8 A).
Knowing the starting and operating parameters of the welding machine, it is possible to calculate which section should have an extension cord. It is better to take with a small margin to ensure a comfortable working environment. Do not buy in the market extension cord cheaper. Under a thick layer of insulation, thin wiring can most often be found. It is more reasonable to go to a specialized shop and choose the right wire for the section, and the appropriate outlet to look after the outlet. It is desirable that it be made of thermosetting plastic, one that does not melt when heated.
It is important to remember that the extension cord must be fully deployed during operation. So it is better cooled and does not create additional inductive load.
Care must also be taken to ensure safety. Electrical wires must not have damage to the insulation, lie on the wet floor and touch the working mechanisms. It is necessary to use grounding.
There are often cases when it is necessary to extend the wires at the output. It is not recommended to make intermediate compounds. High output currents can lead to large electrical losses in such places. Guided by the maximum operating parameters of the device, you should purchase a solid multicore copper wire of the required length. The cross-section is better to choose, using the rule: for every 8 A current - 1 square. mm wire area.
If the power grid is “weak” and it is necessary to cook, you can try to connect a petrolgenerator to power the welding machine. It should be noted that its output voltage depends on the magnitude of the load. You can calculate the minimum power that a generator must have to ensure normal operation. For welding with the most common 3 mm electrode, the required current can reach 120 A at 40 V voltage. Thus, when the generator efficiency is 80%, its power should not be lower than 6 kW.
To be fair, it should be noted that there are devices that combine an electric generator and a welding machine. But the price is high for a home craftsman.
There are many types and models of welding equipment. In the country, in the garage and at home you can use any.
The only indispensable condition - the connection scheme should provide a comfortable and safe working environment.