Soldering wires is an integral procedure for installing electrical wiring. High-quality soldering, bonded wires in the distribution box, the correct twist - all this will make durable electrical wiring.
Soldering is most often used for reliable and durable wiring.
Today, quite often used electrical conductors, which are made of wire. Such a device is made of copper or aluminum. It is worth noting that the quality and period of service of wires made of copper make them most beneficial to users, regardless of how much material is.
Electrical wiring can be connected in various ways. The main ones are the following:
- pressure testing;
- terminal blocks;
How to solder the wires with a soldering iron?
Methods of twisting wires.
First of all, you need to prepare the workplace: all the necessary materials and tools should be located nearby, so that in the process of performing all the work there are no difficulties. For soldering need some special tools, without which it will not work.
You will need the following items:
- stand for soldering tools;
- soldering tool;
- a sponge that will be used to remove contaminants from the tip that interfere with soldering electrical wiring.
The sequence of actions in this case is as follows:
Soldering wires with a soldering iron will need rosin and solder.
- As an example, the bonding of two copper wires will be considered. Cables can be both stranded and single-core. The difference between the soldering of these devices is that the stranded cables must be twisted in advance to fix. In this case, soldering will be faster.
- When the stranded wires are twisted, you will need to make a tinning of the material. It is necessary to carry out this process so that the solder is properly reunited with the base of the wire.
- As soon as the fixture is tinned, it will be necessary to cover the brazed base with solder. To do this, you need to melt a little solder, then put it on the tip of the soldering tool. After that, you need to hold a sting on the marked section of the cable. Care must be taken to ensure that the tinol completely covers the cable section with a thin layer.
- For cables that will be processed in this way, stranding and heating with soldering tools (for wires of small cross section) will be necessary.
- If you need to twist the working elements of a large cross section, this process should be performed a little differently. Tin-plating is performed (it is heated by a soldering tool, lowered into the rosin). The twisting of the contacts must be heated, after which the solder should be applied until the final goal is reached. Consequently, as a result, you can get the correct and high-quality twisting of contacts.
When heating the twist of electrical wiring, it is recommended that heating be done first from the far end from the insulation. If you ignore this recommendation, the twist can damage the insulation layer.Back to table of contents
In the distribution box, the connections of loops should be of good quality, since the soldering of these elements of the power grid is performed for a long period.
Type of wire when soldering, welding, twisting.
Previously, in most cases, cables were twisted in an appropriate box for distribution by mechanical impact. Twisting as a method of bonding wiring stubs is prohibited by PUE, since after this bonding the resistance will contribute to the heating of the wires, which is unacceptable.
Soldering is not the fastest and easiest method of mounting wiring loops. However, it has one significant advantage - reliable connection.
The melting point of solder is much lower than the same indicator of copper stubs. It is necessary to know that tinol makes it possible to dissolve the outer metal layer of the copper wire. When cured, you get a high-quality twisting of the loops.
After stripping the wire, an oxide film may form on its base. This is precisely the difficulty of soldering aluminum. Such a film can be removed by chemical or mechanical means, everything will depend on the soldering method used. To avoid film formation, you will need to use flux, which is intended for soldering the necessary material. The layer of flux that is applied to the base of the wires must be thin.
The chemical method of removing the film is as follows: the place to which you intend to attach the wire will need to be stripped off, then carefully apply a few drops of copper sulfate solution to it. Next to this place you need to connect the negative pole of the current source, while a piece of copper wire is connected to the positive pole. The end of the wire should be dipped in a drop so that the wire does not touch the connection.
To connect copper wires, solder should be used for soldering of lead and tin, as well as rosin, which is used as a flux. Soldering aluminum cables to electrical wiring involves the use of zinc and aluminum solders. Flux requires zinc and lithium compounds. It is recommended to use gas burners, since the melting point will be approximately 500 ° C.Back to table of contents
How to solder copper and aluminum wires?
Soldering iron device for soldering wires.
The base of the copper wire will need to be cleaned, heated with a soldering tool, and then immersed in rosin. Next, you should melt a drop of solder, then immerse the wire into it to perform a tinning with a soldering iron on the base. This process must be performed with the same movements.
Solder for soldering should cover the base of the wire to a minimum, its excess should be removed from the base with a soldering tool. For this purpose, you will need to install a soldering iron at the connection point so that the surplus will be removed by itself. It is worth noting that the red color of the copper wire should change and get a silvery shade.
If the cable is stranded, then each wire of a small cross section will need to be unrolled, after which it will be tinned with a soldering tool. Further, all you need to return to its original position (screw back).
Aluminum wire before soldering electrical wiring will need to be cleaned, then cover its base with pre-prepared flux. After that, the aluminum wire must be rubbed with a piece of tinol and heated with a flame of a gas burner. After performing these actions, an oxide film will come off the aluminum. As a result of the oxidation, it will collapse, and the working base of the material will be well pounded.
In order to increase the quality indicator of the connection of wires with one wire, you should use a small twist of already tinned cables, in which all formed gaps should be filled with tinball.
The final stage of bonding electrical wiring involves the restoration of the layer of insulation wires. It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that this stage of work is very important. For dry rooms it is necessary to use cotton duct tape.
On the street and in rooms with high humidity it is recommended to use electrical tape, which is made of polyvinyl chloride. This material should be put on a twist in several layers so that it was possible to protect not only the bare wires, but also the distance from both sides by several centimeters. The end of the wound tape will have to be wrapped inside so that it can completely cover the twisting head. It is necessary to insulate the wiring, since in the distribution box where the twist is located, a short circuit may occur due to contact of cables with different charges.
As soon as the contacts in the distribution box are isolated, you can begin to use special caps that actually duplicate electrical tape.
This is necessary for greater reliability and improved quality of work.Back to table of contents
Wire Soldering Tips
To properly perform the soldering, follow the recommendations:
Types of wire connections for soldering.
- It is necessary to choose a soldering tool with replaceable tips in the form of shovels, needles and cones.
- Before performing soldering, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the tip. If the tip is too dirty, you need to use a soldering tool. In this way, dirt can be removed from the base of the tool. In this case, you can use cardboard or a piece of wood.
- It is not recommended to leave the soldering tool dry during the heating of the working element. Therefore, it is necessary to lower the sting into the rosin. This way you can easily determine when the soldering tool is warm and ready to go.
- You should know that in the process of changing the length of the soldering tool it is possible to change the temperature of the heating device.
- In the process of soldering it is strongly recommended to use protective equipment: gloves, glasses, protective clothing. It should be noted that all work with metal should be done by a person whose body is protected by working clothes.
- As a current source, you can use the battery or an ordinary battery from a flashlight.
If you follow these instructions and follow the recommendations of experienced craftsmen, you can perform high-quality and durable soldering.