Needless to say, the work tool is important for any master. From its quality, wealth and diversity of functionality depends on the result of all efforts of the employee.
One of the most famous and traditionally sought-after woodworking tools is a plane. Despite his seeming simplicity, he can do a lot. However, not all home masters know about this property today. Therefore, the answer to the question of how to make a plane the most active means to achieve the highest quality of work, should probably interest every potential joiner.
Planer and its varieties
Planer with bracket and set of incisors.
This hand tool belongs to the class of planing devices. The main purpose of the most frequently used planers is to create a given flat-straight relief on wooden surfaces. In addition, they are used to uniformly reduce the size of wooden parts by gradually cutting off layers of wood.
A standard tool for cleaning planes and edges usually has a length of 20-25 cm. If before it was almost always made of wood, then today there are many metal counterparts.
Modern planing devices are different from older types of both increased strength and the option of adjustment for certain operations, and the ability to equip them with single or double knives.
Scheme options sharpening plane.
However, the main thing is that over the many centuries of evolution of this tool, joiners, endowing it with new and new features and modifying the design, have found for their faithful assistant many different and promising additional functions. As expressed in a wide variety of types and modifications of the plane.
Thus, today the following major modifications are known:
- face plane;
- complementary plane.
There is also a large group of planers, which are distinguished by the type of planing of wood and their working parameters.Back to table of contents
The jointer (semi-jointer) is a manual planer for leveling surfaces by planing wooden planes of a sufficiently large area and for fitting various parts. With its help, and final planing.
This contributes to the considerable length of the jointer plane and the double cutter. A handle is mounted on the block behind the knife, there is a cork in the front, with which the working force of the cutting tool is adjusted.
The principle of operation of the jointer is based on the fact that when it first passes through a wooden surface it forms chips, which consist of individual wood fragments. The final flatness of the machined plane is formed during the second pass, as evidenced by the appearance of continuous chips.Back to table of contents
As can be seen from the name of this woodworking and carpentry tool, it is intended for clean finishing planing of the ends of wood blanks. Small wooden surfaces and side cuts of parts are processed completely due to the presence of a specially cut (at an angle of 21º) cutter. In the face model you can also use replaceable knives.
You can adjust the cutting depth by adjusting the overhang of the cutter, which is performed using a special roller. The basis of the design of this type of planer is a stamped base, the width of the working part of which reaches 40 mm. In this case, the base of the tool and its monolithic sidewalls are perpendicular to each other.Back to table of contents
Zenzubel for the production of grooves
Planer for profile planing.
This planer has a second, Russian, name - selector. This name is not accidental, since its main functional purpose is sampling followed by stripping of cuts, quarters, folds, grooves with a rectangular cross section.
This effect is achieved by installing a zenzubel cutter at a right angle to a narrow block of the base and a special configuration of the cutter. It has the form of a small rectangular blade with 3 cutting edges: the main (central) and 2 side edges.
In order to use the plane of this modification, it is necessary to have some experience with such a tool and knowledge of the technique of producing elements of the relief of wood blanks. Before applying the seal on the workpiece, mark the quarters with a surface gauge, and then carefully proceed with a plane along the marked line. At this point, the first chips are removed, due to which a small ledge is formed. Next, choose the grooves, again passing along the ledge, you can already much more confidently and quickly.Back to table of contents
This tool has other names - a dog, road builder. With it, the dowels are selected on the surface of the wooden blank - special narrow grooves, which are located at a strictly specified distance from the edge of the blank. These grooves in woodworking are used for reliable connection of various parts of wood structures.
The plane of this modification can produce dowels up to 12 mm deep and 2-10 mm wide. A sufficiently wide range of groove depths is achieved by means of an adjustment device, with which the worker can change the degree of immersion of the cutter in the tree thickness. Himself knife of the fungus has a semicircular cross section.
In the role of a guide, with the help of which the strict parallelism of the groove relative to the edge of the workpiece is maintained, an additional metal block is used. Thanks to this design, the grooves can be positioned at a distance of up to 100 mm from the edge of the wooden product.Back to table of contents
This plane is used for sampling and stripping folds (quarters). It is used most often in cases where it is necessary to make long grooves along the edges of wood surfaces in the form of grooves, intended for the subsequent insertion of glass in window frames or in furniture shelves for glazing.
From the above-mentioned gray hair, which also makes longitudinal grooves, the faltsgebel has a wider sole, which has a stepped structure. This circumstance allows using this tool to select folds of the same size.
For sampling of quarters of different profiles and dimensions, removable stepped soles are used. The ability to trim the vertical wall of the quarter gives the additional installation of a special knife on the side of the folding door.Back to table of contents
Finishing plane: 1 - knife, 2 - knife stop.
This tool is designed for fast and high-quality cutting of fairly sharp corners at the edges of wooden blanks. The specified function with fine tuning is ensured by a special control and adjusting screw mechanism with knurling for the complementary plane.
Based on the specifics of the operations performed, this tool is made resistant to fairly high workloads. High-quality cutting of corners is ensured by the presence of a cutting part of solid steel, which has 3 working planes (bottom, right and left).Back to table of contents
Other types of planers depending on the type of planing and working parameters
There are many other types of planes, which differ in the type of wood planing (flat or profile planing), the dimensions of the profiles and pads, the angle of inclination of the cutters to be installed. Briefly, their list is as follows:
Scheme of work by electroplane.
- Screw. Designed for the initial roughing of unprepared wood. Due to the rounded shape of its iron knife, a sufficiently flat surface is obtained when this planer passes through rounded wood material.
- Schehebel. This tool is designed for relatively coarse primary planing. It features a flat shoe sole and a rounded chisel blade.
- Medvedka. This plane, like the previous one, performs coarse planing operations. It has an elongated body with two handles. Equipped with chip breaker.
- Shliftik. The double cutter of said fixture equipped with a chip breaker provides an especially clean method of planing wood. Knives in it are set at an angle of 50º (instead of the standard 45º).
- Zinubel. With the help of this product on the planes of wooden parts, which will later be glued together, it is possible to apply small technological grooves.
- Kalevka. This specialized tool qualitatively processes the curly edges of various wood products.
- Headquarters (another name - headquarters). Gives various wooden details a rounded silhouette. To do this, it is equipped with a chisel and shoe sole, having a concave shape.
- Gruntubel. This planing option is used by master joiners when it is necessary to carve a trapezoid groove across the wood fibers. To carry out this operation, the subtube is equipped with a side knife in the form of a sharp hook. Basically, this tool makes fine surface treatment after the primary chips have been selected with a chisel (chisel).
- Gorbach. It has a curvilinear working block, which makes it possible to plane curved wooden surfaces (for example, with a convex or concave relief).
- Shavings. A type of hand-held planer designed for extruding curved concave-convex planes of wooden objects.
Thus, knowing the intended purpose of the tools described above and their basic parameters, any master will be able to fairly confidently orient himself in the functionality of the entire group of these traditional hand tools. In turn, this circumstance will help to turn the plane from an ordinary carpentry device into an indispensable person in his daily work.