The origin of the screwdriver as an important attribute of a building purpose is associated with the name of Archimedes. He belongs to the idea of the invention of the screw mechanism for the irrigation system. The first samples of screwdrivers appeared at the time of the birth of weapons in the 16th century. Flat varieties of such mechanisms without change reached the modern era. There are different types of screwdrivers, each of which has its own characteristics.
Screwdrivers are straight, cruciform, hexagonal, star-shaped ray varieties.
External characteristics of screwdrivers
This basic tool for construction purposes is such an elementary device that has a handle and a thin cylindrical rod. At its end there is a sharpening for the slot of the screw. The first handles were made of solid wood, but they quickly deteriorated: they broke, they became dirty, they were poorly cleaned.
Gradually wooden handles are gone, and plastic samples took their place. Such options turned out to be more convenient and practical in action. Two types of plastics are used for this: powder and cast. The first coating is hard but fragile. The second option is characterized by greater elasticity and a soft base. Screwdrivers with a rubberized grip become more comfortable samples. They are very comfortable, practically do not get dirty and do not slip in your hand.
Typically, the handle of such a device has a diameter of 10-40 mm. It is worth paying attention to these indicators as they provide convenience in work and approach the sizes of screws or screws. The nature of the twisting is determined by the indications of the diameter. To fasten a small element, use devices with a small section, for fixing the screws with considerable effort, the handle is drilled in the transverse position and an additional lever is inserted into it.
Schematic phillips screwdriver.
Of great importance to the handle of a screwdriver is the material from which it is made. The device should not rotate and slide in your hand. To do this, many samples equip rubberized elements. The raw materials used must be chemically resistant, able to withstand the aggressive effects of various chemicals. The bulk of these pens are designed to work in dry conditions, but minor contact with chemical components does not pose a danger to them. Long contact with gasoline, solvent and other components is unacceptable; for this, use samples with plastic handles.
In the process of repair work, it is often necessary to hit the screwdriver handles with a heavy object. For this purpose, samples are made with metal plug-in components. Otherwise, the device is easily damaged and can not fully perform its functions.
An important element of any screwdriver is a cylindrical metal rod with a sharpening slot. Excessive softness of the metal leads to its collapse and failure of this device. Too hard base to break. A quality screwdriver is characterized by a coating of chrome steel, vanadium and molybdenum. Such devices are very strong, flexible, durable, their tip is well hardened.Back to table of contents
Breaking load for bolts.
Among the various types of screwdrivers stand out standard samples. Of these, one can distinguish straight, cruciform, hexagonal, star-shaped ray varieties.
Straight Slots are among the most ancient examples of such devices. They have the following dimensions: thickness 0.7 mm and width 8 mm. These options are characterized by simplicity of design and are still actively used. Straight slots are easily made with their own hands from improvised means, such as nails.
Flat screw types have one slot in the base. Despite the popularity of such a device, it is not always convenient to use it: during the work, the screwdriver slides off the slits, which leads to damage to the screw and the tool itself.
Cross screwdrivers are widely used in the engineering industry.
Such samples are securely held in the hand and have a larger touch area than the previous version.
Comparative table of characteristics of screwdrivers from different manufacturers.
A hexagonal slot is needed where an effort should be made to tighten, for example, in hydraulic modules. Models in the form of a six-pointed star are used in the aerospace industry, where strength and external beauty are needed.
Screwdriver classifications are many, but the most common ones are:
- The three-way type is equipped with a ratchet device located in the coupling. This model helps to make screwing at an angle of 40 ° and 90 °.
- Screwdriver-gun is equipped with a special hand, imitating a similar device. Usually there are 20 spare parts in the kit.
- The design with spherical additional parts, their number reaches four.
- A screwdriver-drill produces mechanical screwing, its action is connected with the operation of batteries. The device starts up by pressing on the handle; there are 5 such elements in the kit.
- The device with multi-functional features. This is a tool of professional value, can move and move apart. The kit has an extension wire and 5 spare fittings.
- A device with an ergonomic handle is characterized by a standard appearance, the main difference will be the ability to conduct current through itself. Separate models are equipped with indicators showing whether there is voltage in the device.
In the arsenal of any person, regardless of whether it is a professional or a beginner, there should always be a set of screwdrivers. Each of the many models performs certain types of work, choosing the right tool correctly, you can not worry about the quality of work performed.Back to table of contents
Special purpose screwdrivers
For such mechanisms, a number of special tips are provided, each of which carries out different types of work: restores mobile phones, watches, household appliances and electronics. For amateur non-professionals produce screws designed for non-standard type screwdrivers. There are mechanisms equipped with slotted anti-vandal base.
There are samples with flexible rods that allow you to easily penetrate the most seemingly inaccessible points. Magnetic screwdrivers are used in places where there are difficulties with fixing the screw. The clockwork mechanisms are equipped with a rotating component, in which the screwdriver itself is pressed with one finger, and the notched rod is screwed in with the other.
There are types of shock devices in which the pin passes through the entire base of the handle, which allows you to hit it with a hammer or sledgehammer. The impact force can be significant with a gradual transformation into rotational motions with the tearing of old screws.
Adjusting screwdrivers made of plastic are used to repair radios and televisions that do not allow contact with metal surfaces. Torque specimens allow shutdown when a certain level of tightening is reached.
Dielectric turning devices are made of electrical insulating materials, the core of which is insulated to the very base. Before operation, they undergo a clear control of the level of electrical breakdowns and leaks.Back to table of contents
Such devices operate on batteries and are equipped with a large number of interchangeable nozzles. Convenience and high speed of rotation pushed such devices on the pedestal of bargains. The popularity of these devices is due to the fact that they are actively used when carrying out large-scale works. Screwdrivers make it easier to work, allow you to quickly assemble any furniture, to carry out roofing work with profiled sheeting. The rotation speed in such devices is fixed.
In some cases, for the repair of electronic equipment sensitive to static electricity, tools with antistatic protection are required.
In addition to the presented single types of screwdrivers, there are kits that allow you to conveniently place them in the package and store these attributes. They save work space. The bits supplied with these sets can be used for drills and screwdrivers.