Most of our fellow citizens, first of all, of course, men, at least once in their life, but used an ax. This versatile tool is as common as it is critical to safety measures for its use. The safety of work with an ax begins with an examination of its state: first of all it concerns the attachment of the ax itself to the handle - the ax.
The ax attachment on the ax handle: a - fitting, b - nozzle, c - wedging; 1 - ax, 2 - ax handle, 3 - wedge.
The question of how to put an ax on the ax is particularly relevant for those who plan to repair an old ax or assemble a new one.
Anyone who picks up such a tool should take into account the data on the breaking force acting on the used ax, which can reach 2000-2500 N. Those who prefer to make the ax themselves for themselves should be attentive to the existing experience. create detailed tools to avoid possible unpleasant mistakes.
Ax tip tips
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Classic nozzle method
The scheme of the wedge used for wedging an ax.
Usually, to fix the metal ax itself on a wooden handle, an ax handle, the following method serves: the metal part of the tool with its hole, called the eye, fits tightly onto the handle, after which the latter is wedged in the eye using one (wooden or metal) or two (wooden and metal wedges. In order to correctly perform this method of attachment, it is necessary to carry out some preparatory work.
To the chosen (or already existing) ax, in which the eye of scale and rust to the pure metal has been previously cleaned, you need to pick up the appropriate ax. It is recommended for this purpose to use well-dried (no more than 18% moisture) birch wood or solid hardwood. Moreover, the ax handle should not have in the body and at the ends of knots, cracks and blackening in the structure. Wood fibers should be located along the handle. The thickness of the workpiece for the handle of a large ax, as a rule, is chosen in accordance with the size of its eye. If the eye is small, then the thickness of the workpiece should be selected based on the size of the wrist girth of the master who is preparing the tool for himself.
The selected ax handle is machined at the ends:
- at the lower end, the chamfer is removed from the edge, so that in the future it will not have chipped wood;
- at the upper end, they make a vertical propyl under a wooden wedge along the line corresponding to the plane of the axis of symmetry of the ax handle, which coincides with the blade of the ax attached to the end.
Scheme sharpening an ax.
The specified propyl is made to a depth of about 2/3 of the height of the eye, according to the corresponding mark on the ax. Cutting width - about 1.5 mm.
The performed kerf will further serve as an additional marker for the orientation of the ax blade when fitting, since the blade, kerf and axis of symmetry of the handle must be on the same plane. In front of the nozzle, the upper part of the ax is adjusted to the size of the eyelet: the wood is cut with a sharp knife using the corresponding marking lines. And it should be borne in mind that in the opening of the butt (in the eye), the handle should not enter freely, but only with a certain effort, under the influence of an external additional factor. Otherwise, after some time, the ax will hang on the handle. In addition, removing excess wood in the upper part of the ax, it must be remembered that the latter, at the end of the nozzle, should come out of the eyelet by 8-10 mm.
It is recommended to attach the prepared ax handle according to the following system:
- Tapping on the top with the mallet, the butt of the butt is pushed onto 10-15 mm of the handle, orienting the blade with respect to its lower end and the cut made earlier.
- Tapping the bottom end of the ax on the previously prepared heavy array of wooden beams, smooth stone or metal, continue the nozzle until the ax handle takes its intended place in the eyelet.
When conducting the nozzle, it is necessary to constantly monitor the location of the blade relative to the lower part of the handle, making sure that it is on the same plane with the axis of symmetry of the ax. If undesirable deviations appear, cut the wood with a knife in such a way that the nozzle continues within the specified limits.Back to table of contents
Ax scheme: 1 - butt, 2.9 - wedges, 3 - blade, 4 - toe, 5 - chamfer, 6 - heel, 7 - beard, 8 - ax, 10 - sharpening.
The set tool should be further secured: to unscrew the handle in the butt of the eyebol so that it does not move on the ax handle and, especially, does not fly off of it. For this purpose, used wooden and metal wedges.
Wooden wedges are made from solid wood, usually birch. Requirements for the presence of humidity are similar to the requirements for wood ax. Recommended wooden wedge dimensions:
- height - 2/3 of the height of the butt + 10 mm;
- width - full length of an eye;
- thickness of the upper part - from 3 to 4 mm;
- angle - from 20 to 30°.
Before driving, it is recommended that the wedge be smeared with the appropriate glue, which will serve as an additional holding force.
Together with wooden wedges, metal wedges having the form of a rectangular plate are also used. The classic wedge of metal in the upper part has a thickness of about 3-4 mm, in the lower part - about 1.5 mm. The width of the wedge is usually determined within no more than 0.75 of its height. In the middle of the plate, a hole is drilled, the diameter of which should be at least 10 mm, and it is recommended to leave the unevenness of the edges of the resulting hole for better grip with the wood of the handle. The specified hole in the wedge serves as one of the conditions for holding it in the ax, as the wood of the handle, filling the hole, prevents the movement of the metal plate. Such a wedge is hammered after a wooden one, with the latter crossing at some angle (up to 90°).
Some practitioners suggest using a metal wedge of a fairly rigid, but bending metal, along the edges of which, on both sides, uneven cuts are applied, the lower parts of which are slightly bent from the plane of the plate. Such cuts, when the wedge is clogged, are an obstacle to its extraction. In addition, if a similar wedge is hammered into an ax handle parallel to a wooden one at a distance of 2 -3 mm and the upper part of the metal wedge is bent towards the wooden one, with the latter overlapping, then the metal wedge, in addition to performing the main function, will hold the adjacent wooden one.
However, some experts are opposed to the use of metal wedges, motivating their position by the fact that the metal quickly rusts and leads to the destruction of the wood structure of the ax. Proponents of this approach have developed ways of wedging axes using only wooden wedges.Back to table of contents
Non-standard nozzle method
Shapes of axes and hatchets.
Some craftsmen have developed and successfully use their own ways of fitting axes, in which they use several wooden wedges and additional materials that improve the fastening of the tool on the handle. One of these methods is based on the use of five wedges, two of which are located perpendicular to the plane passing through the axis of symmetry of the ax and the tool blade, and the rest along the line of the specified plane.
In accordance with the number and planned location of the wedges on the upper end of the handle of the ax make cuts. Then, just as in the classical method, appropriate marking is applied to the wood. However, in contrast to the classics, further the ax handle is grinded so that with its upper part, on which the tool will be attached, it freely passes into the butt eye.
In this method, an additional material that will provide a tight, with effort, tool attachment, will be a bandage, the layers of which are wound on the end and the bearing part of the handle are impregnated with epoxy glue. The specified sealant, in addition to the main function, will ensure the “treatment” of possible violations of the integrity of the wood, as well as the protection of the treated ax from the ingress of moisture in the future. Attaching an ax to such an ax is standard; however, when wedging, it is recommended to put a certain amount of epoxy glue into the cuts, which will enhance the effect of wedges and protect against possible cracks in the wood.
Both for the first and for the second variant of carrying out measures on the nozzle, it is recommended, after the end of wedging, to finish the tool assembly work, neatly cutting off all the extra fastening parts located on the upper end of the ax handle. If during the work on the connection of the parts of the ax on his arm appeared scoring or chipping wood, they need to be eliminated, without compromising the performance of the tool.
Correctly put the ax on the ax and fix it correctly - this means performing the final part of the operation of assembling the ax, after which you can confidently perform various works with this tool. And if you treat this tool with care and store it in dry rooms, he will pay back for taking care of him for many years of excellent service.