A clamp often remains an indispensable device in a carpenter's toolbox. It is impossible to imagine a high-quality gluing of wooden blanks without using this simple clamping device, but not only joiners use this tool, masters of metalworking and welding work give it its due. To become the owner of a whole set of clamping devices, you need to spend a lot of money, but home-made clamps, which are easy to do at home, will help to save them. The easiest way to collect them from the tree.
Diagram of a straight clamp.
Making wood products
Of course, to make a clamp of wood, you must use hard wood. Best for this purpose fit beech or birch. True, their processing is easier to conduct an electric tool:
- manual mill;
- electric drill;
- with an electrical planer or belt sander.
A circular saw saws off the workpieces of the required length, and the thorn-groove joints, reinforcing the structure, are made with a router, as the clamps experience increased loads during operation.
Figure 1. Diagram of an angular joinery clamp.
In the extreme case (if it is impossible to make a sample), the bars in the ends can be cut at an angle of 45about, and connect them with threaded fasteners. Durability of adaptation will provide 8 screws (4 for each heel). The best reliability of the connection "thorn-groove" will provide double or triple spikes. In addition, it is significantly reinforced by dowels (shkanty), which are coated with glue and driven into the holes drilled for them. The mating areas of the blanks should also be coated with glue. The device clamps made of wood shown in Figure number 1.Back to table of contents
Screw manufacture and nut installation
The most difficult part to make is the screw part, but the studs and the corresponding nuts can be purchased in stores or made independently from rods from 10 to 16 mm in cross section, on which the thread is cut. After that, the upper part of the screw is rolled, and a support nick is installed on it, and a hole for the handle of the driver is drilled in the lower part. You can weld the head from the bolt to the bottom of the stud, then it will have to be tightened and unscrewed with a wrench. Steel penny can be replaced with a hardwood block.
A very important operation when assembling a wooden clamp is to secure the nut. It should be installed on the workpiece, not connected to other parts of the structure. A hole is drilled in the bar corresponding to the cross section of the screw rod.
During operation, it is necessary to withstand the perpendicularity of the drill to the drilling surface.
Figure 2. Scheme of plywood clamps: 1 - body; 2 - round timber; 3 - steel washer; 4 - clamping screw of steel rod.
The screw should fit tightly into the workpiece. With it, a thread is cut in the hole. To facilitate the passage of the rod through the wood will help lubricate it with soap, wax or glycerin.
The stud is screwed into the bar until the nut can be screwed onto its side that has left the wood. The nut is pressed against the workpiece, and lines are drawn with a pencil along its edges. The screw gets out. By marking chisel cut down the hole, the depth corresponding to the thickness of the nut. She sits in the resulting nest on the glue. After that, all elements of the structure are assembled.
For the manufacture of clamps made of wood is best to use the bars with a cross section of 50 x 40 mm. The dimensions of the blanks depend on the size of the fixture you are going to make. The length of the screw part depends on the clamp grip. Wood planing is best carried out before sawing it into parts.Back to table of contents
Clamp plywood manufacturing
It is very easy to make a clamp out of plywood (Fig. 2).
For this you will need:
- taps (M 5 and M 10);
- Lerki (M 10);
- studs, bolts (M 10) or steel rods with a cross section of 10 mm and a length of 12 to 15 cm;
- PVA glue;
- high-quality plywood with a minimum thickness of 20 mm;
- screw (M 5);
- self-tapping screws.
The pliers body is cut out of plywood. The length of the case and the screw depends on the size of the device, and the width of the heels (1) and legs should not be made less than 4 cm, since the design can lose in strength. A hole is drilled in the lower heel with an 8 mm drill bit. After that tap M 10 cut the thread. At the end of the cutting, the hole is cleaned from dust and lubricated with glue, after which it dries, the thread is re-cut.
On the rod (4), the thread is made with a 10 mm die. At the end of the stud, a blind hole is drilled and a thread is cut for the screw M 5, with which the base of the pressure pin will be screwed to the screw part. It is made of plywood 10 mm thick. The upper part of the nickle (2) from a bar or plywood of 20 mm is attached to the base with screws. Wooden parts of clamps after sanding are treated with antiseptics and coated with varnish. It should be noted that for the manufacture of large clamps need to use thicker plywood or glue together the plane of 2 blanks with a thickness of 15-20 mm.
As you can see, wooden clamps can serve as a cheap alternative to factory products. Using homemade devices, you can fully perform carpentry work.