In a country with the richest reserves of natural gas, there are still a lot of villages where stoves are heated with wood. Considering that even in central Russia, the heating season lasts six months, one can imagine how much wood fuel is required for each household to survive the winter. Firewood procurement is a very hard physical labor, requiring mechanization for a long time. Make a homemade wood splitter who will do the work of a man with an ax, you can do it yourself.
Figure 1. Scheme of a screw wood splitter
Cone screw splitter
Its working body is a threaded steel cone. When rotating, it is screwed, like a self-tapping screw in a log, and splits it into two parts. Such a wood splitter (fig. 1) consists of the following elements:
- bed frame;
- electric motor;
- pulleys or sprockets;
- belts or chain;
- bearing support;
- threaded cone.
Figure 2. The drill for chopping firewood should be with a ratio of the base and height of 1: 2, the thread - in increments of 5-6 mm.
The bed is a metal table, preferably on wheels. The electric motor with a power of 2 to 4 kW is mounted at the bottom of the bed. Through belts or a chain, it transmits rotational motion to the shaft on which the working cone of the wood splitter is fixed. The frequency of rotation of the cone should not be too large (to avoid injury to the worker) and too low (to achieve the best performance of the wood splitter). Its optimum value is 400-500 rpm. Knowing the diameter of the driving pulley or sprocket on the engine and the frequency of its rotation, we can calculate the diameter of the driven pulley or sprocket. For example, with an engine speed of 3000 rpm and a driving pulley diameter of 50 mm, the driven pulley should be 300-350 mm in diameter so that the working cone rotates at an acceptable speed.
The working shaft 300 mm long and with a diameter of 30 mm is fixed on the bearing support. It grins up to 25 mm: on the one hand, under a pulley or asterisk, on the other - under a working cone. The cone, the main part of the wood splitter, is manufactured on a lathe. It is better to make it removable, securing it with a bolt on the shaft so that it is easier to free it if it gets stuck in the log. The cone should be with a ratio of the base and height of 1: 2. The diameter of the base - 70-100 mm. The thread on it is cut left, stubborn with a step of 5-6 mm (Fig. 2).
The working element of a wood splitter combines a self-tapping screw (screw) and a wedge. The log is upright. Without much effort on the part of the worker, the cone enters with a tip into the tree, twisting into it and splitting it into halves. The cone with a diameter of 70 mm is able to cope with a 400 mm wide log. A cone of 100 mm will overcome the log with a girth of 2 m. The capacity of the wood splitter is several times higher than that of a man with an ax. Instead of an electric motor, it is permissible to use an internal combustion engine, for example, from a motor-block. You can make a cone with the possibility of attachment to the wheel of the car.
Back to table of contents
Other types of homemade wood splitters
Figure 3. A hydraulic splitter is the safest kind of splitter.
In addition to the cone wood splitter, there are many other ways to facilitate human labor. Distributed hydraulic version of the mechanism for chopping wood. The simplest way is splitting logs with a jack. The wedge, which plays the role of a cleaver, is fixed on top motionless. A jack with a capacity of 4-6 tons with a 8 mm thick metal sheet fixed under its heel is located at the bottom. The log rises until the cleaver splits it. Making it (relatively cheap type of wood splitter) will not do without welding. Particular attention should be paid to the strength of the structure, which will undergo significant loads. Compared with a conical wood splitter in this case, a person will have to perform considerable physical work.
An expensive and safest type of wood splitter is using a hydraulic pump driven by an electric motor (Fig. 3). Splitting of a log is made on a horizontal surface by the fixed steel wedge. On the reverse side, the log is pressed by the cylinder under fluid pressure. Making a wood splitter with your own hands is not difficult.
It is advisable to calculate the economic benefits of its use.
Many items will have to order or buy in the store. It may turn out to be easier to bring gas into the house or, if health permits, to work with an ax.