Electric planer is an indispensable tool for planing wood, both at home and in professional workshops. Maintaining cutting elements in proper condition ensures ease and comfort of working with the tool. Therefore, it is extremely important to know, or at least in general terms, to imagine how to change knives on an electroplane.
Planer design and features
The main working element is knives, fixed with locking screws in special slots of a cylindrical milling cutter. Often the body of the cutter is also called the drum.
Typical dimensions electroplane.
There are designs involving the installation of a different number of knives. Despite the fact that with an increase in the number of blades, the quality of surface treatment will be higher, in practice, however, double-knife variants are most often used. Occasionally there are models using three knives.
The use of such a limited number of machining edges is due to the complexity of the design and, as a result, a decrease in the reliability of the tool. In addition, the electric planer is a hand-held tool, and installing a dozen blades on a drum is simply physically impossible.
In addition to the drum and knives, the design of the instrument includes:
- Sole made of aluminum-containing alloys. A distinctive feature of the sole is its division into two parts. One half acts as a fixed base. The position of the second is regulated, providing the required depth of planing.
- Regulatory and management bodies.
When do I need to change knives?
The standard kit electroplane includes a pair of knives.
In the process of wood processing drum performs rotational motion. In the course of the translational movement of the tool, the cutting edge of the knife during rotation cuts off particles of material. Gradually the sharpness of the blade decreases.
In the treated boards there may be foreign inclusions (nails, dirt, pieces of frozen solution, if the boards were previously used for formwork or for plaster), leading to rapid wear.
Reduce the sharpness of sharpening and knots found in the array. Planing at the same time will occur perpendicular to the location of the fibers.
Signs indicating the need to replace the knives on the electroplane, is:
- an increase in the effort expended in moving the tool through the workpiece;
- deterioration of the quality of the surface being treated, the appearance of scuffing, chipping and protruding fibers;
- the appearance of a smooth shiny (as if polished) strip along the cutting edge of the knife (a sharply sharpened blade is a thin line).
To replace the knives, a miter wrench is used, with which it is necessary to loosen the bolts.
In some cases, reducing the sharpness of the sharpening tool is accompanied by a change in the sound made by the plane during operation. This feature, however, does not always appear, and not every person, due to physiological characteristics, can catch a change in the mode of operation by ear.
From the tools, in order to remove the knives, a wrench will be needed. In some cases, you may need a flathead screwdriver.
The sequence of works is as follows:
- after disconnecting the power cord from the mains and completely stopping the rotation of the drum, the plane is turned upside down by its sole;
- the drum is scrolled to a position that opens access to the clamping bolts that hold the knives in the working position;
- a wrench of the appropriate size bolts loosen;
- depending on the planing design, the knife is removed from its nest by hand or with a screwdriver;
- the drum is cranked to retrieve the next knife.
Depending on which knives are used in the planer, their fate will vary:
- the classic blade is sharpened and installed back;
- disposable double-sided knives when blunting the cutting edge is turned over with the unused side up;
- disposable single-sided knives and fully used double-sided knives must be disposed of with household waste.
Installing knives in the drum
Remove the first blade with a slotted screwdriver.
The installation of knives in the drum basically differs little from the process of their extraction: all operations are done in the reverse order.
- the knife is installed in the working nest;
- clamping bolts are wrapped;
- the plane is turned over and brought into position.
It should be noted an important point, which consists in the correct orientation of the angle of sharpening the blade. When installing the knife in the slot, the sharpened side of the blade should face away from the cutter surface. In this position, the fibers are cut. The tool stroke is smooth, and the resulting surface has a high quality finish.
Otherwise, the blade will cut off particles of the material. The quality of the treated surface and the convenience of work in this case is out of the question.Back to table of contents
It is not enough to simply install the electrical cutting blades in the landing slots, it is still necessary to correct them (setting).
Depending on the planer's design, the position of the interchangeable working elements can be adjusted either manually or with a screwdriver, by tightening or loosening the adjusting screws.
In the presence of adjusting screws, the adjustment process is not difficult.
Before removing the second blade, turn the drum and loosen the bolt.
A screw-driver alternately tightens the screws, and the knife is installed on its workplace. After a satisfactory arrangement of the tool is achieved, the knife is finally fixed with the help of clamping bolts.
On older models of electroplanes, devices for setting the level of installation may be absent, and it is necessary to adjust the position manually. The departure of the edge of the blade in this case is set by raising or lowering the knife with the help of hands or by placing auxiliary gaskets of various thickness on the bottom of the groove. Final fixation also occurs with bolts. Setting up a tool in this way already requires some experience and patience.
When tightening the fixing bolts, care should be taken to make it gradually and evenly, preventing possible shifts in the position of the blade relative to the sole.
Scheme angle sharpening plane.
The correctness of the setting of the working tool is checked by the mutual arrangement of the edges of the knives and the fixed part of the plane of the planer.
The cutting edge should be located flush with the fixed part of the planer base. Mostly a slight elevation is allowed above the sole plane.
The correct installation of the blade overhang can be checked using a wooden ruler or slats with a smooth straight edge. The ruler is applied to the fixed half of the sole. When scrolling the drum blade should slightly raise it and move it forward. When the drum moves in the opposite direction, ideally, the ruler should remain motionless, as a last resort, slightly rise and fall back to its original place.
By applying a small plate simultaneously to the plane of the planer and to the blade, you can check their mutual parallelism. The plate should lie flat, without any distortions.
It is very important to note that it is unacceptable to carry out any work with cutting elements when the power supply cord is connected to the network.
Following these simple instructions, you can simply and safely replace the knives on the electroplane.