For a large number of people working with wood brings pleasure. It's nice to make a table for the veranda or make a garden bench. You should know that this is a great physical labor. However, today it is much easier to simplify the work through the use of electric planers. Anyone can work with such a tool, even a beginner.
Such a device appeared quite a long time ago. Externally, modern electric planers resemble old structures, but they outnumber mechanical structures several times in performance.
With the help of an electric planer, it is possible to process wood, reduce the thickness of wood blanks, plan, customize, process boards on a bed, cut edges. With the help of this device there is no possibility to process large surfaces, but in the case of small volumes it makes sense to use a similar tool.
The plane is more intended to level the surface of the tree, which was previously roughly processed. After leveling the base with this tool, all irregularities and defects will disappear from the product, as a result of which it will become extremely smooth. In most cases, wood finishing is carried out with a grinding planer. With this tool you can also make a groove or chamfer in the part.
How to make a plane with your own hands?
Figure 1. Diagram of planer elements.
In order to work with concave or curved bases, humpback humps were invented, with the help of which they produce textured planing of wood blanks. These elements have a special form. They have no particular advantages over modern planes. In addition, working with these devices is quite difficult. To produce high-quality processing of parts, you will need to have some experience and special skills.
Today, it is very difficult to find kalevka in hardware stores, since almost all stores sell electronic equipment. That is why it is much easier to make a plane yourself.
Elements that will be needed in order to independently manufacture a plane:
- Iron element.
- Wood harvesting.
- A simple pencil.
- Plywood sheet.
- Adhesive mixture.
- Drilling device.
- Bar section of 12x12 mm.
- Micron skin.
Tools for making planer.
The homemade plane with the docking points of all the elements can be seen in fig. one.
The element of iron will determine the dimensions of the tool body, because the first thing you need to make an iron element and a chip breaker. For a small plane, you can use an iron element from an old tool, and for a plane with oval-shaped elements, you can use ready-made pieces of iron that can be purchased at a hardware store. These devices are initially littered along the radius, they can be purchased complete with suitable chip breakers.Back to table of contents
How to select and process the workpiece?
In most cases, the plane is made from the most common types of wood - birch, maple, etc. The blank must be made 30-50 mm larger than the final dimensions of the tool being produced. The width can be determined by the following formula: the dimensions of the "glands" + 3 mm + 20 mm for the cheeks + an additional 6 mm for machining on the machine. If a small plane is manufactured, the cheeks can be approximately 6 mm thick.
The marking of the tool should be done in such a way that the rings are perpendicular to the sole, and the fiber goes down from the front to the back. So that after cutting all the elements can be connected in the correct order, you need to draw a triangle with the top upwards on the front of the block.
The scheme of manufacture of the knife for the plane.
First of all, you need to make 2 elements of the middle section, between which you will need to fix the piece of iron and the chip breaker with a wedge. After that, 2 cheeks are attached.
The tool body is assembled from the workpiece, which is sawn into 2 parts. Cheeks are cut out with a band saw. Next, the middle section is sawn into several parts. At the same time, it will be necessary to form the bed of the iron element and the chip breaker opening. Wedge can be cut from unused pruning. Upon completion of the assembly body and the sole must be processed in the form. At the end, the planer is adjusted.
The middle element should be 4 mm wider than the “gland”. In addition, there should be an allowance of another 4 mm for processing the middle structural element to the shape of a rectangle. You can mark your cheeks using the same saw. At an angle of 45 ° is placed the bed of the "piece of iron", so that it could easily come out chips. At an angle of 60 ° is the front opening passageway. The middle element is sawn on the front part, which is called the toe, and the back part, which is called the heel.
Next, you need to make an ordinary template of plywood sheets, with which you select a groove for the screw head, which ends at a distance of approximately 20 mm from the bottom of the case. The groove can be selected with a chisel.Back to table of contents
Preassembly of the structure
Types of planes.
Before assembling the planer, the middle element's mouth should be slightly processed with a file, using the form of "glands". Further, the rear part of this section is installed on the edge, the iron element is put in place, after which the front part moves towards it. At the end you need to check the correctness of the fit.
Further, the structure is moved apart so that a gap of 3 mm is formed between the parts of the middle structural element for an iron element 4.5 mm thick, which forms the tool's mouth. After this, all parts of the planer will need to be leveled and compressed. Through the cheeks in the middle section on 2 sides you will need to drill holes in order to install the dowels and glue them.
In most cases, the planes have a rectangular shape, do not waste time on refining the structure. In the side walls should choose a small niche for the fingers. To make it easier to grab the tool, you need to chamfer from the corners.
When the plane will have a final shape, you will need to cut the chamfer. Up to this point, they will be able to provide an accurate exhibition of all the elements so that it is possible to fit the transverse rod. So that in the process of gluing the elements of the tool the dowels do not interfere, they need to be cut off flush with the cheeks.Back to table of contents
Completion of the construction
Scheme of assembly and adjustment planer.
On the extreme parts of the rod you will need to install spikes of a circular shape, which will enter the holes in the cheeks. Due to these spikes design can rotate at an angle to the wedge. To be able to make holes for the rod on the top of the planer, an additional line should be drawn at right angles to the sides. Next, 1 cheek is removed from the assembly, and with the iron element installed and the chipbreaker, the line is transferred to the other cheek. The second cheek is removed from the middle part and at a distance of 20 mm from the bottom of the structure and 12 mm from the top of the chip breaker, the center of the hole for the core is marked.
To ensure the exact location of the hole of the rod, you need to make a hole on the drilling device.
Along the lines drawn, the cheeks are aligned, compressed with clamps, after which a hole is drilled.
The core can be made of a bar with a section of 12х12 mm. The length of the rod should be equal to the width of the tool, taking into account the cheeks. The length of the spikes is determined based on the thickness of the cheeks. At each end of the rod you need to make 4 shoulders. After this, the spikes are rounded with a knife.
To ensure uninterrupted chip output, the upper edges of the middle element of the rod will need to be rounded. After making the rod, you will need to check its fit to the tool. The rod should rotate freely.Back to table of contents
How is the final assembly of the tool?
When the rod is fitted, you will need to check the location of the studs and the dowels. These elements should be flush with the cheeks. All elements will need to be glued and secured with clamps, while the cheeks should be protected with gaskets. When the adhesive mixture is dry, you need to clean the protruding solution. To be able to flatten the sole above the joints, you need to go through the planing machine 1 time by design.
The wedge, which can be made from trimming from the middle element, must be installed between the chipbreaker and the rod. If the wedge is flat, then it will be hard to knock out. If the angle is too large, then the wedge can be knocked out even with light blows.
After assembling the planer, you will need to make a sole and remake the mouth for the final fit to the iron element, taking into account the purpose of the tool to be made. A narrow gap in front of the iron element is a prerequisite for thin chip removal, but you should be aware that a gap of 0.8 mm wide is more suitable for coarse chips.
The adjustment circuit release blade planer.
The most time-consuming stage of work is the fitting of the mouth of the instrument to the “piece of iron”. The notch will need to round in accordance with the bends of the iron element. This can be done only through a small opening in the bottom of the tool. If the plane is made to remove fine chips, then you need to ensure that the gap of the mouth was as narrow as possible.
At the uneven line of the front of the middle element, it is necessary to fix the iron element, then give the correct shape to the sole. To do this, in a vice it is necessary to clamp the manufactured tool with the upward edge and from the ribs to the middle, where you need to remove a small amount of wood. Next, the structure must be treated with a plane with a flat sole.
When a gap of 0.8 mm remains in the plane up to the radius of the iron element, it will be necessary to switch to a cycle. This is done in order to be able to remove the medium from the planer. Next, a small skin is fixed on the plate and the lower part of the planer is trimmed with long identical passes, shaking the tool from side to side. Then you will need to inspect the contours of the sole of the iron element. In the end you need to make a cleaning of the sole micron sandpaper, which is attached to a flat base.Back to table of contents
How to make the adjustment of the manufactured tool?
After stripping the iron element will not be able to pass through the mouth of the instrument. Therefore, you need to remove the wood in front of the iron element file of small size. You need to shoot until the mouth and the iron element do not match. As a result, the "piece of iron" should slightly go out of the sole.
If the quality of the manufactured device is satisfactory, then the plane can be varnished. On the side parts of the structure it is recommended to additionally apply another 1 coat of varnish.
In the process of gluing all the structural elements, it is necessary to promptly remove all the excess adhesive mixture that may protrude after compressing the workpiece in a vice.
Independently making a plane is not so difficult if you know all the existing nuances. You will need to follow the correct sequence of actions and have all the necessary tools and materials available.