Types and device cartridge perforator

For today the puncher is a tool №1. For professional builders, the perforator cartridge device is well known, but what those who do not often encounter this power tool do, because in everyday use it may be necessary, there is a chance that the cartridge will become unusable. The reasons for which it is necessary to change the drill chuck can be different, including the slow work of the toothed rim or another more global breakdown. In any case, the cartridge punch can be replaced, and it is not at all difficult. The main thing is not to use heavy nozzles for light or middle class tools.

Typical punch device

The device is a typical punch.

Universal electric tool - perforator (drill)

Any self-respecting man or builder has in his arsenal universal tools, including a drill. In its set are necessarily present:

  • several nozzles;
  • adapters;
  • cartridges.
Punch chuck scheme

The scheme of the cartridge punch.

But the basis of any drill action is the chuck. Adapters are used to install the drill bit (depending on the diameter of the hole to be drilled, or to simply tighten the screws and screws). Nozzles on the punch are set depending on what task you need to perform a drill.

In any case, it is better that there is always a spare cartridge on hand, because at the most inappropriate moment it can fail, respectively, the drill will not work.

Each type of work involves the use of different cartridges. Keyless chucks are suitable when you have to change them often, and the key ones are used if large drills are installed in the drill.

Many are concerned about the question of why we need different types of cartridges. We must not forget that the punch can have more and less power. For a powerful tool (for example, for percussion professional drills) the main thing is to securely mount a drill, a drill or nozzles.

The scheme of the device components perforator

Diagram of the device components of the punch.

Some cartridges are designed for deep landing drill, and the main task in this case - it is to minimize the possibility that the drill can fly during operation. But if “jewelry work” is necessary, for example, to tighten the bolts or to make a small hole, the emphasis is not on fixation, but on accuracy.

The predecessors of the current drills were fastened with movable cams, but over time the devices were updated and improved. Now in the punch drill is fixed with two guide wedges and two locking balls. That is why the fastening of the cartridge of the current perforators is more reliable. Fixing the attachments has also become much easier: they are inserted into the cartridge, after pressing, a click occurs - it means that the attachment is fixed. To remove the drill bit, simply press the movable cover.

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How does the cartridge for drill

Diagram of the device chuck

Diagram of the device clamping cartridge.

The first drills appeared in the early 20th century and are still very popular. But the first perforators had a drawback - a weak cartridge, today they are improved and practically have no drawbacks. In the construction world there are several sub-types of drill chucks.

  • key: the nozzle captures a special key that helps to reduce and spread the fingers of the cartridge, but to change the nozzle you need to spend more time than for other species;
  • keyless chucks: fixing nozzles is carried out by hand, they can be dvuhmuftovymi and odnomoftovye.
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SDS cartridge device (steck, dreh, sitzt) - insert, rotate, secure

Types of perforator cartridges

Types of perforator cartridges.

Toward the end of the 90s, universal fastening mechanisms on the drill appeared, which are now known and have the name sds (steck, dreh, sitzt - insert, rotate, fasten). Nowadays, almost all models of drills have such fasteners - cartridge. The versatility of the device and the principle of operation lies in the shanks. They have 4 slots: 2 are open, 2 are closed. Open grooves perform a guiding function for nozzles. For closed grooves assigned a locking role. To fix the drill bit, just turn it a little. In this case, the balls, which are intended for fixing, are located inside the cartridge, fall into the closed grooves, and the drill will hold securely and firmly. To drill bit inside the cartridge without problems, experts recommend lubricating it.

In this case, the force of impact is much reduced, and the cartridge will last for a long time. It should be noted that for a professional drill there are different types, for home use - others.

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Varieties of sds fasteners for punch

Types of nozzles for punch

Types of nozzles for punch.

Sds mounts can be divided into several types. They are divided among themselves by different diameters of the landing rod. In addition to sds, there are such options for mounting perforator:

  • sds-plus;
  • sds-max;
  • sds-top;
  • sds-quick.

Sds-top cartridges and sds-quick fasteners are considered intermediate variants, the most common fasteners for a punch are sds-plus.

Such fasteners have a wide range of possibilities. By installing sds-plus on the punch, the drill's vibration during operation is much reduced, which is important for quality and performance. Typically, these fasteners are used for repairs and construction, and it does not matter if the work is done by a professional or a home craftsman.

Detailed punch scheme

Detailed puncher scheme.

Due to the versatility and low weight of the perforator, on which the cartridges of this type are mounted, it is possible to perform chiselling, drilling of hard surfaces, and also to screw in screws. An electric drill with SDS-plus is quite popular, especially for drills, which have an average size and are used in everyday life (their weight is up to 3 kg). Moreover, speaking of the chisels for the punch, it should be noted that their length should be no more than 1 mm.

Electric drills that weigh more than 3 kg can be called heavy professional rotary hammers. They give the impact force up to 32 J, of course, in this case, the performance indicator is much higher. On such drills install only sds-max fasteners, the previous type of cartridge simply can not hold the nozzle, respectively, and drill. The sds-max fastening device is distinctively shank diameter - it is much larger than other cartridges, it has another guide slot. Such construction tools are designed for professional permanent use.

Despite the fact that drills with such mounts are much more expensive than their counterparts, such a tool will last for a very long time, but only if you choose proven manufacturers.

For some models of perforators, drilling without impact is typical; for this reason, conventional cam fasteners are installed on them, if drills that have a cylindrical shank are used. The most uncommon types of perforator mounts are sds-top and sds-quick. They are intended for structures of medium size, but because there are sds-plus, they are practically not used.

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What you need to know about perforator cartridges

Technical characteristics of punchers with a different internal volume

Technical characteristics of punchers with a different internal volume.

For uninterrupted and high-quality work of a drill, its components, including chucks, must be inspected and cleaned. In some cases even small repairs will be needed, for example, replacing the spring. It is not necessary to be a master or a technician - the procedure is quite simple and does not require a certain dexterity, especially since sds, even from different manufacturers, are almost the same in structure and availability of components.

The most common drill problem is turning the drill and impaired movement of the toothed rim. In this case, you need to replace the drill chuck.

Practically in all perforators they are fastened with a spindle, in some there is a screw rod for fixing, therefore, first the chuck is opened and the screw is unscrewed. If it sits very tightly and does not give way, you can try to drop a few drops of oil or a “liquid key” on it - perhaps rust or small debris caused the screw not to unscrew. After the screw has been removed, it is necessary to unscrew the cartridge itself.

The principle of operation of the percussion hammer mechanism

The principle of operation of the percussion hammer mechanism.

In some cases, you need to lock its axis in order to remove it. Some new models of perforators have special recesses for the key, which will help to remove the cartridge without problems, but in the old models, in order to get rid of the cartridge, you will need to remove the top cover and lock the axle from the inside. If the cartridge is fixed by a spindle, then it is better to hold it with a key or hold it in a vice, only after that to remove it.

If there are no plastic components in the perforator cartridge, to clean it, it is necessary to put it in kerosene for 24 hours, so it will be cleared of small debris and dust. For cleaning plastic parts used spray oils. In some cases, craftsmen use a penetrating lubricant to clean the parts, but you should remember that after it the parts rust quickly.

A very common situation is when the drill sticks in the chuck. The reason may be incorrect installation of the drill or nozzle. Because of the fluctuations that occur during drilling, the cartridge breaks down, and as a result, the drill does not work. In some cases, the drill bit may simply come off, because it is incorrectly fixed, it can cause serious injuries. Experts recommend carefully installing the drill bit, the nozzle in the cartridge and be sure to disconnect the punch from the power source.

Before you change the cartridge on the punch, no matter how much power the tool has, you should determine in advance which model and modification you need the cartridge. If in doubt, it is better to ask the experts, they will help you choose the right cartridge. If the replacement of the drill bit or nozzle takes place quite often, then the quick-clamping one is better.

If mainly large drills are used, then it is better to install a key chuck, in which case the drill will last much longer. You can purchase a punch holder at any hardware store. To date, there are no problems with their production. But it must be remembered that for each model of punch there is a different type of cartridge, therefore, it is better to choose the mount either with the presence of a drill or with the cartridge itself. A well-known manufacturer is always included in the kit to the perforator and a spare cartridge. Usually fasteners rubberized - this is also a measure of security during replacement. If you buy a new cartridge, it is better to choose the one that is rubberized.

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