The chainsaw is not a complicated mechanism. But its application is very wide. It can be used for firewood for a fireplace in a private house, for thinning the garden at the dacha, for construction work.
The scheme of the chainsaw device.
One of the most common manufacturers of this type of equipment is the company Stihl. But irrespective of the manufacturer, the troubles of the Shtil chainsaws on time will serve as a guarantee of its long service life.
Chainsaw Calm consists of a body, inside which is located the engine and fuel storage tank. On the outside are the starter, the handle and the part that is responsible for the cut, equipped with a chain. The drive of the whole mechanism is carried out after a sharp jerk of a rope that starts the engine.
At the Chainsaw Calm uses a two-stroke internal combustion engine with 1 cylinder. Its power is quite enough to drive the saw blade, which is connected to the engine through a single-stage chain drive. Such a rather simple device allows the unit to work quite reliably for a long time while observing all the norms of operation.
Chainsaw centrifugal clutch: 1 - friction linings, 2 - springs, 3 - drum.
Most often, chainsaw Calm is additionally equipped with an air purification system, which is fed into the carburetor by a starter. For the convenience of chain tensioning, this mechanism is located on the side, which makes it possible to carry out this procedure without contacting the chain web.
In addition, modern models of chainsaws Calm can be equipped with a heated handle, an interlock of the lever regulating the gas, an electronic ignition system and other protective elements and mechanisms. New models of carburetors provide a preheating system that saves fuel.
The presence of a motor brake when the chain is jammed will provide the necessary safety. The system of automatic lubrication of the chainsaw chain Calm will save oil during the entire period of operation.Back to table of contents
Malfunctions: General Provisions, Features
Like any mechanism, the Chainsaw Calm is prone to breakage. If during the operation of the chainsaw, all the requirements that are described in the instructions for use are met, then the unit can last for a long time without repair.
The most vulnerable part of the chainsaw is the engine. But before you start repairing the device, you need to know the exact location of the problem.
Fuel system for chainsaws: 1 - fuel filter, 2 - carburetor, 3 - manual pre-priming pump.
For breakdowns that are associated with the engine, include:
- faults in the ignition system;
- breakdown of the fuel supply system;
- piston, cylinder failure.
In addition, the Chainsaw Calm may not perform its functions due to the fact that the failure occurred in the clutch, brake chain or mechanism, lubrication system.
In order to start troubleshooting (regardless of the location of the breakdown), you must have:
- sets of keys, among which must be hex keys;
- several screwdrivers (flat and cross) of various sizes;
- A special key that can be attached with a chainsaw.
Engine related failures
When the engine is running, the following defects may occur, which may impair the performance of the chainsaw:
Air cleaning system: 1 - the cover closes the fine filter, 2 - the fine filter, 3 - the cover closes the coarse filter, 4 - the coarse filter.
- after the plant saw stalls immediately;
- passport power is not reached;
- the engine is intermittent or unstable;
- The engine will not start.
If the engine does not come in the nominal mode, then first of all it is necessary to check the operation of the ignition.
To do this, you must inspect the spark plugs. To get to them, first remove the cover, and then the high-voltage wire from the head. After this, the spark plug is unscrewed using a spark plug wrench.
When viewed from her, conclusions can be drawn:
- The fuel mixture does not reach the cylinder where the candle is located. At the same time the candle is completely dry. Then the failure of the chainsaw is not related to the ignition system.
- The fuel mixture is supplied in excess when the candle is excessively splashed with fuel. In this case, the failure affects the carburetor or the launch system. To do this, remove the carburetor, clean it and then put it in place. If after this chainsaw Calm does not start to work, then you need to inspect the launch system. But before cleaning the carburetor compartment, you must wipe the spark plug, stop supplying the fuel mixture to the engine, and then turn on the starter. This procedure will remove excess fuel and ventilate the camera. The rubbed candle is placed back and try to start the engine again.
- The oil used is of poor quality, and the carburetor adjustment is done incorrectly - the candle is covered with black soot.
Coarse air cleaning system: 1 - snow filter, 2 - mesh filter.
It is necessary to strictly observe the proportions of gasoline and oil. They are written in the documentation. In addition, it is necessary to use good quality gasoline. The oil must correspond to the type of engine, that is, two-stroke gasoline. The carburetor must be dismantled and the gaps inside it must be checked using screws, and their size must comply with the standards.
The candle must be cleaned of the resulting carbon with a sharp knife or sewed, the electrode should be cleaned with emery paper. According to the regulatory documentation, the distance between the electrodes should correspond to 0.5-0.65 mm. If this distance is greater, then this means that the candle needs to be replaced.
If the candle is already twisted from its position, then you can make sure that there is a spark.
For this test, you must wear a high-voltage cable. With the help of pliers, it is necessary to connect the nut of the candle and the cylinder. When starting the starter between the electrodes, a spark should slip. If not, then this candle should be replaced. If a spark does not form in the new spark plug either, then it is necessary to check the integrity of the high-voltage cable or the cap that connects them to each other.Back to table of contents
Breakdown of the fuel system of the chainsaw
The device of the chainsaw starter: 1 - drum, 2 - cable, 3 - handle, 4 - frame.
In addition to the fact that the fuel mixture does not meet the requirements, malfunctions in the operation of the chainsaw or its uneven operation can be caused by such reasons as:
- The fuel filter is dirty. In order to clean the filter, you must remove the hose and make sure that the fuel flows evenly through it. If the fuel is intermittent or it is flowing in a thin stream, the filter needs cleaning. The filter can be reached through a hole in the tank through which the mixture is poured. In case of severe contamination, the filter must be replaced. In addition, the fuel filter must be replaced or cleaned for preventive purposes. This procedure is performed 1 time in 2-3 months, depending on the intensity of use of the gasoline saw.
- Breather plug. Check the opening of the tank cover. To do this, disconnect the hose and clean the needle from clogging.
- Shortage of fuel. On this occasion, the engine may simply not start. The reason for this kind of malfunction can be all sorts of blockages (filters, hoses). The air, which is necessary for the correct operation of the engine, enters the carburetor in small quantities. Therefore, the fuel mixture fills the engine, which leads to its uneven operation and stopping.
The carburetor needs to be cleaned regularly, especially if the quality of gasoline or oil is in doubt. In addition to its cleaning, it is necessary to monitor the integrity of the membrane. Channels and other elements that form the carburetor itself must also be clean and dried.Back to table of contents
Analysis and cleaning of the muffler: features
A breakdown in the spark arrester of a silencer can cause an uneven operation of the unit (stalls at high revs, works nominally at low revs). This means that it is clogged with the combustion product of the fuel mixture.
Adjustment of the oil pump: 1 - adjusting screw.
In order to eliminate this problem, you must perform the following steps in sequence:
- dismantle the muffler;
- close the hole through which the exhaust, close with a clean cloth;
- if the model is subject to analysis, do it;
- clean from accumulated soot using special means;
- allow to dry in the open air or to dry forcibly, for example, with a hairdryer;
- assemble the muffler completely and set to its original position.
Cleaning can be done only in this sequence and with the use of washing liquid. This is due to the fact that carbon in its composition consists of extremely harmful and hazardous substances, during inhalation of which they can cause irritation of the mucous membrane or another allergic reaction.
In order to avoid such faults in the future, it is necessary to monitor the proportions of the fuel mixture. That is, the ratio of gasoline and oil should be only as recommended by the manufacturer. The oil used for this, it is desirable to apply a good quality. His brand is most often specified in the documentation attached to the chainsaw.Back to table of contents
Chain Lubrication System Malfunctions
If the chain is jammed during operation, then one of the reasons for this behavior of the chainsaw may be a failure of the lubrication system. This system may have several reasons for failure:
- The flow of oil. To eliminate this cause, it is necessary to check the integrity of the tube that is connected to the fittings of the oil pump. If the tightness of the connection is disturbed, the tube is treated with a sealant. After hardening it is necessary to check the performance of the chainsaw.
- Lack of oil supply. This is caused by clogging of channels that serve oil.
In addition, there may be damage or cracking in the housing of the oil pump. In this case, it is necessary to replace this element of the chainsaw. Knowing all the main features, adhering to the recommendations, you can carry out repairs on their own.
Well, if it does not work out, then you can always contact specialized maintenance services. By the way, according to this manual, you can repair almost any device, for example, to troubleshoot Friendship chainsaws.