The device is a modern electric drill

One of the most popular tools today are drills. They are simply irreplaceable in house use. The device of an electric drill can be completely different, ranging from a cheaper option to professional-grade equipment.

Household electric drill

Household electric drill.

If we analyze the statistics of tool breakage, then we can pay attention to the fact that an electric drill breaks quite rarely.

Device and principle of operation of the tool

The main element that drives the entire tool, the electric motor. It is from him that the rotational force arises for the drilling element, which, in turn, is fixed in a special cartridge. The engine creates a very high speed of turning, which is unacceptable for work, therefore it is regulated with the help of a gearbox.

The device of an electric drill consists of the following tools:

Types of drills

Types of drills.

  1. Dust grating.
  2. Power regulator (in the process of tightening the screws or wood screws).
  3. A speed controller that acts as a torque limiter.
  4. Shock switch.
  5. Keyless chuck.
  6. Self-centering cams.
  7. Cartridge mounts.
  8. Regulator.
  9. Impeller cooling fan.
  10. Electric motor
  11. Lever reverse.
  12. The cock.
  13. Clamp for power cord.
  14. Power cord terminals.

Of course, there are many elements, but each has its own purpose. In some models, manufacturers have provided a feature that helps regulate the torque limit. Then there is no need to re-tighten the screws and screws.

Diagram of the percussion mechanism of the drill

Diagram of the percussion mechanism of the drill.

The gearbox is connected to the chuck via the output shaft. Chuck - a device whose purpose - to hold the drill and other similar nozzles. Most models are equipped with three self-adjusting jaw clips, and a key with a gear can also be used so that it can lock and unlock the cartridge channel. Another part of the electric drill adjusts mounting by turning the cylindrical ring, which is located around the mechanism.

A trigger is the same switch used to turn on the device. More modern models use it not only to launch the tool into operation, but also to regulate the rotation speed. This moment depends on how hard to pull the trigger.

In some models there is a function that allows you to select the optimal speed due to the round rotatable knob. It limits the course of the trigger, which is extremely convenient when working on screwing screws. The main thing is to carry out the whole process at slow speeds.

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Functions of a modern electric drill

To date, manufacturers are trying to equip their products with all sorts of options. Thus, there is an opportunity for moderate money to acquire a completely high-quality and professional apparatus.

Characteristics table of electric drills

Table of characteristics of electric drills.

  1. Electronic speed adjustment. She is now equipped with most models of power tools, and drills are no exception. The latest devices are equipped with a smart controller that controls the rotational speed. This function is quite convenient, because if the drill will experience excessive load, then such a mechanism will maintain the set speed, and also compensate for the rotating moment. This action leads to the safety of the motor in cases where the drill is stuck in the working material.
  2. Reverse mode. A power drill can not only tighten the screws or screws, but also perform the opposite action - twist them out. Such action is feasible with the help of a switch, which is usually located near the trigger.
  3. Impact action. If drilling involves solid material (for example, brick or concrete), then this option will be very useful. A special percussion mechanism creates a percussion effect at a speed of several hundred strokes per second, which is transmitted to the drill. Thus, when drilling the surface collapses. But with this function, special drills are used, which must be securely fastened in the chuck.
  4. The trigger lock. This option facilitates the process of work, because clamping the trigger for a long time is extremely tiring. The latch is located on the handle of the electric drill, when pressed, the tool works without stopping, and after pressing the drill again, you can turn off the drill if you release the trigger.
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Electric door on batteries

The drill can work not only from sockets, but also from the battery.

Battery drill circuit

Scheme of the cordless drill.

Such wireless devices are very popular, since they are not limited to any cords. And this, in turn, allows you to apply them in absolutely any conditions.

More expensive models of this variety have a special storage container, which is equipped with a charger. Thus, if the electric drill does not forget to put in place after use, it will always be charged. But if it is not possible to buy such an analogue, then you can opt for models that simply require a replaceable battery.

In order to go through a full cycle of charging the battery, it takes about 60 minutes. You can use a more advanced device to upgrade the battery, which will reduce this process to 15 minutes. The average unit is designed for several thousand charges. This point needs to be clarified to each firm separately. After the battery has worked, it should be replaced.

This option is extremely convenient, but its cost is slightly higher than the wired one.

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How to achieve maximum efficiency

Each manufacturer specifies the range of rotational speed, which will contribute to maximum efficiency. Experts recommend to focus on the working material. For example, if wood or other similar materials are drilled, then high speed is used, and for a stone or metal it is better to choose a slower mode. In order to properly screw the screw or screw, select a low speed.

If you carry out a certain manipulation with each part of the device, then you can also increase efficiency:

  1. Cartridge. If the drill is installed with a key, then it is recommended to manually adjust the cartridge until the cams clamp the end, and only then, moving around the perimeter, tighten all positions with a key. In those models that are regulated without a key, the whole procedure is carried out manually.
  2. Device drill. Such a working tool should always be well ground. Wear, damage or blunting significantly reduces productivity. In addition, the use of low-quality drills leads to the fact that an electric drill, more precisely, its motor and gearbox, is experiencing an excessive load. This can cause them to overheat and fail. To eliminate this drawback, it is necessary to sharpen the drill from time to time, moreover, to date, both manual and electrical devices have been invented for this procedure.
  3. Reliable grip. Electric drill is quite a dangerous tool. Therefore, during the work, it should lie securely in the hand. Due to the rotational movements, the body itself will create vibrations, especially in cases where a drill or bit is wedging. If handled carelessly, it may harm the product or cause injury to a person. Manufacturers are struggling with this disadvantage by connecting an extra handle to the main handle. It helps to control the progress of the device.

It is very important that during the workflow the ventilation openings are open and not blocked by anything, for example, with the hands of the drilling person.

Regardless of which model is used (expensive or cheaper equivalent), it is necessary to keep the instrument clean. Of course, you can try to repair such a device on your own, but the failure is always upsetting. Therefore, in order to avoid this, it is necessary to wipe the drill from dust every time after work is completed, especially with regard to the ventilation holes. When the device is removed indefinitely, it is best to cover its metal parts with a thin layer of oil. This will protect them from corrosion, so that later the device could work fully.

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