Power and other important characteristics of an electric

We decided to buy an electric drill, but do not know which model will suit you best? When choosing a drill, you need to pay attention to a number of characteristics, such as power, class and type of tool, operation features, speed, maximum drilling diameter, etc. Only an integrated approach and joint consideration of all relevant characteristics can ensure that you buy a reliable and productive tool that is suitable for the assigned tasks.

Kinematic circuit of hand drill

Kinematic scheme of a hand drill.

Differences household and professional tools

Depending on the power and a number of other characteristics, existing drills can be divided into electric drills of household class and professional-grade drills. In addition to power, they differ mainly in permissible load, i.e. the number of hours that the tool is able to work without wear. The electric drill of a professional class is able to work without a long rest for 6-10 hours a day. Professional drills are superior to electric drills of household level not only in power and performance, but also in quality of materials used for assembly.

Household electric drill

Household electric drill.

The advantage of a household electric drill is its low weight and more affordable cost. Manufacturers are trying to combine ease of use with a beautiful design. The household electric drill can work no more than 3-4 hours a day. Every 15-20 minutes, the instrument must be allowed to rest. All these points are indicated in the instructions for the drill. Power household electric drills more modest compared with the same indicator for a professional tool.

Professional electric drills are usually bought by furniture makers, carpenters, repairmen and other construction-related professionals. As a rule, such masters buy electric drills of higher quality, mainly working from the power supply network. But cordless drills are also used by professionals, usually when performing work that requires frequent movement.

As for perforators, they can be considered as a professional-level tool. At home, rarely anyone has to hammer holes in brick and concrete.

Types of drills

Types of drills.

Drills are classified not only by power, but also by weight. Conventionally, they are divided into heavy and light. Light is considered an electric drill weighing 2-6.5 kg. The power of such a tool is usually 500-1000 watts. Heavy electric drills weigh more than 7 kg and usually have a capacity of 800-1000 watts. Most often, they are additionally equipped with the function of a jackhammer, which will be useful when cracking various kinds of hard materials.

Thus, choosing an electric drill, you need to consider not only its power as such, but also performance. Focus on the estimated amount of work and frequency of use of the electric drill. If the tool is purchased for a home workshop, buying a high-powered professional drill that is too expensive does not make sense. If the electric drill will work more than 3-4 hours a day, take a closer look at the tool with a power of more than 500 watts, preferably 800-1000 watts. Buying a professional electric drill is better not to save.

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Features of different types of drills

Drill Button Connection Diagram

Connection diagram of the drill button.

On the modern market of tools there is a large selection of drills to perform a variety of tasks.

The first type is a drill with a shock function. The main difference from an ordinary instrument is that such an aggregate makes translational, in addition to rotational movements. This increases productivity and the opportunity to work with materials of higher strength, such as concrete and brick. A conventional drill is best suited for working with wood and non-solid metals. The percussion mechanism makes the tool more versatile. If necessary, the blow function can be turned off and the tool can be used as an ordinary drill.

Corner drill will help to make holes in the most inaccessible places. Gearbox with a chuck made in the shape of the letter “G” or angle. Often used in car repair shops if necessary, for example, to drill holes under the hood of a car.

Construction Mixer Tips

Nozzles for construction mixers.

Drill mixer, in addition to the main purpose, allows you to stir a variety of solutions, coloring compositions, cement mixtures and many other materials. As a rule, such a drill does not have a blow function. For convenience of mixing, the tool is equipped with an additional handle that can be fixed in different positions.

Drill-screwdriver will allow the home craftsman not only to make holes in different materials, but also to wrap / turn out, if necessary, self-tapping screws, screws, and screws. Typically, such tools are small in size and relatively low power, i.e. Concrete with their help you will not turn.

To a separate category you need to include such a tool as a drill puncher. The main difference of this tool lies in the design of the gearbox. The main mode of the unit is a blow, in the usual drill - drilling. The puncher is most often used by repairmen and builders. At home, the need for its use is extremely rare.

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Power or battery?

Lithium-ion battery device

The device is a lithium-ion battery.

After selecting the appropriate type of device, you need to determine whether there is enough opportunity to work from the mains or need a drill with a battery. Reliability and service life of the network electric drill depends on the skills of the owner, his experience, the stability of the voltage in the network. And if the first two parameters improve with time, then there are some problems with the power grids in most regions. It is the large voltage drops are the most common cause of breakage of drills. To avoid this, you must additionally use a voltage rectifier that is responsible for stabilizing the voltage to a constant level.

The main disadvantage of the network drill is the impossibility of its use in the absence of an electrical network. Yes, and long wires do not add convenience. If you need to work on the street or in other places remote from the outlet, you will have to use an extension cord and additionally monitor its serviceability. It is important to take into account the weather conditions. For example, in the rain and with too high humidity with power tools work is simply dangerous. After use in the cold, the tool can be turned on no less than 1-2 hours after the entry into the room.

If you do not want to mess with the wires and want to be able to work in any places and in any weather, pick up a modern cordless drill. The number of disadvantages of network tools can additionally include the risk of breaking the network cable in place of its junction with the case. Battery-powered units lack such a drawback. But for the additional convenience you have to pay extra. Battery models are as mobile and compact as possible. In most cases, equipped with two batteries, which increases the convenience and duration of work.

Drill bit pattern

Diagram of drill nozzles.

When buying a cordless drill, you need to select the appropriate type of battery, its capacity and charge time. Low-cost models are equipped with nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries are slightly more expensive, and the most expensive are lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries. If you have enough money, it is best to buy a drill with a lithium-ion battery.

The basic capabilities of the tools directly depend on the power of the battery. In household models, the power usually ranges from 10.8 V, most often 12 V. A voltage of 18 V can be attributed to the category of professional equipment. Such cordless drills are more expensive, but the possibilities of their use are much wider.

From battery capacity directly depends on battery life. The higher the number, the better. For greater convenience, it is recommended to buy an extra battery or even a few if the tool is used intensively and often.

The point in buying a professional-class unit is if you probably know that the drill will have to be used at maximum load and in aggressive conditions. Household models are inferior professional in power, resource, peak and temporary loads. For most household tasks, there is enough power of a domestic tool.

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What power is best for you?

The scheme of drilling holes of large diameter

The scheme of drilling holes of large diameter.

The design of the electric drill includes an electric motor. It is thanks to him that the rotation of the drilling element is ensured. Motor power affects rotational speed, power, drilling productivity and other important parameters.

The most modest household model can have a power of 250 watts. In units of professional class, this figure reaches 1500 watts and more.

When choosing the right capacity, you need to focus on the features and the expected intensity of future work. The most common models that allow you to perform the vast majority of household tasks, have a power of 550-800 watts. It is recommended to focus on this indicator when choosing a drill for a home workshop. With more serious demands, the power of the unit should also increase. It is strictly not recommended to subject the instrument to loads exceeding those indicated in its characteristics. This will lead to an immediate breakdown of the unit.

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The number of turns and the number of strokes

Diagram of the device of the impact drill

Diagram of the device of the impact drill.

Along with power, a very important characteristic of household and professional drills is the speed of rotation. The maximum rotation speed of almost all tools is 2600-3000 rpm. The higher the maximum value, the better. It is recommended to buy such a tool in which the ability to regulate this indicator is available. This will allow you to perform various jobs with maximum efficiency.

In the case of a hammer drill, you need to pay attention to such an indicator as the frequency of impacts. The higher this value, the faster the drill will be able to pass the surface being treated. Most often there are models with a frequency of 43000-48000 beats / min.

If you want to buy a truly productive and versatile electric drill, take a look at the models with indicators of 3000 rpm and 45000-48000 bpm.

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Maximum drilling diameter

Drill sharpening scheme

Scheme sharpening drill.

When performing various chores, it becomes necessary to prepare holes of different diameters. To do this, use the appropriate drill. But keep in mind that in the process of drilling on the motor and working elements of the drill are significant loads. And the harder the processed material and the larger the drilling diameter, the higher these loads.

Power tool capabilities are limited. If it is too heavy, it can break down. To prevent this, you need to adhere to the maximum drilling diameters specified in the instructions. Values ​​for wood and steel are usually given. In the case of impact drills, recommendations for working with concrete and bricks are specified separately.

Remember that maximum values ​​are critically acceptable, i.e. it is impossible to constantly use a drill in such conditions: it will have a very negative impact on its service life.

Normal drilling operating parameters are usually somewhat lower than the maximum allowed.

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Recommendations for choosing the type of cartridge

In the case of an electric drill, the chuck is the part of the tool that holds the drill. There are fast-locking and key chucks. In the case of the key to fix the drill, you must use a special key. Keyless chucks do not require the use of accessories.

The advantages of quick-release chucks include a faster and easier procedure for replacing the drill. If you purchase low-power power tools and use it to drill holes in “soft” materials, the keyless chuck will give you the opportunity to save some time. If the purchased tool has medium or high power and will be used to perform a variety of tasks, it is better to choose a more reliable key cartridge.

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So which drill to choose?

Types of drills

Types of drills: a - spoon, b - centering, c - cochlear, d - screw with a conical sharpening, d - screw-shaped twisted, e - screw-type auger, w - plug-in, h - countersink, and - universal (sliding).

Thus, the first thing you need to do in the process of choosing a power tool is to understand the modes and stages of work. On the modern market there are drills with the stated power from 250 to 1500 watts. This allows both the novice master and professional worker to choose the most optimal model for his case.

For frequent use is best suited high-power professional drill. But in the case of any tool you need to maintain the schedule of work and rest recommended by the manufacturer. Otherwise, you can simply lose the electric motor.

For infrequent use at home, you can buy a drill of low and medium power. Such a power tool can work no more than 3-4 hours a day and no more than 15-20 minutes in a row. The same time he needs to rest.

To expand the capabilities of the tool, buy additional drill bits. When buying, pay attention to the diameter of the cartridge. Be sure to consider the maximum allowable drilling diameter specifically for your drill.

Thus, the power though is one of the most significant parameters of the drill, but this is not the only characteristic that needs to be taken into account. Only an integrated approach to the process of choosing a power tool will allow you to acquire a model that can fully cope with all the tasks assigned to it. Have a good choice!

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