Varieties of drills are perforator and screwdriver. If you need to tighten the fasteners, then you should learn how to use a screwdriver. All these devices are very similar to each other, but differ in purpose and have their own specific features.
The main purpose of the screwdriver is screwdriving.
This type of drill is designed for fastening screws. Recently, many people have recognized the convenience and usefulness of the device. Those who have not had time to get to know him, are wondering how to use the screwdriver correctly.
Proper use of the screwdriver can be divided into a number of stages:
- device selection;
- familiarity with its design;
- operation and maintenance of the device.
The choice of screwdrivers
Modern designs screwdrivers have several modifications, determined by the appointment. The following main types of devices can be distinguished:
Types of screwdrivers.
- drill screwdriver;
- rechargeable screwdriver.
If a conventional device is designed only for tightening fasteners, then the drill-screwdriver combines the functions of drilling and tightening fasteners by expanding the range of speeds. The most low-powered device is a rechargeable screwdriver. The wrench is equipped with a nozzle for tightening the nuts and other hexagons.
By type of electric power screwdrivers can be divided into batteries and working from the network. Battery devices have a great advantage in terms of mobility. They are usually installed nickel-cadmium and lithium-ion elements. By the mechanism of fastening the drill, you can select the screwdrivers with the keyless chuck, and the screwdrivers with key chucks.
Important parameters of the device are the power and speed of rotation. Power can be expressed in functional parameters - soft and hard torque. Soft torque determines the maximum allowable load in the twisting mode, and the hard torque - in the drilling mode. For ordinary screwdrivers, the first parameter is most important. So, at a moment equal to 30 Nm, the length of the screwed screw is limited to 70 mm, and at 40 Nm it increases to 100 mm, etc.
The rotational speed determines the purpose of the device. When using it only in the mode of tightening or unwinding of the screws, the speed is set to 350 rpm. If the machine is used in drill mode, the speed should be at least 1000 rpm.
Diagram of the removable battery device.
When choosing cordless screwdrivers, you should consider some features of the batteries. Modern imported devices are often equipped with lithium-ion cells. These batteries have several advantages, including high enough service life. However, they have a tendency to self-discharge, i.e. discharged during storage. Screwdrivers with these batteries are good when they are often used. If they are rarely used, it is advisable to use devices with nickel-cadmium elements that are less prone to self-discharge and much cheaper. Any batteries need to choose their capacity. The higher this indicator, the better the item. If the screwdrivers will be used at home, where there is access to the sockets, it is better to choose a device with power from the mains.
When choosing an expensive high-quality screwdriver, you should pay attention to additional features that will expand the capabilities of the device. These include:
- introduction to the design of the percussion mechanism that will help when unscrewing the end heads;
- providing a pulse to increase torque, which is useful when drowning the screw head;
- the possibility of increasing the speed of rotation up to 1000 rpm;
- illumination of the working area.
When choosing a screwdriver that is cheap but sufficient for home conditions, you can stop at a device with a torque of 30-35 Nm and mains or nickel-cadmium battery with a capacity of about 2 A / h.Back to table of contents
All types of drills have the same type of construction, including:
Scheme of the cordless screwdriver.
- split housing;
- drill chuck;
- electrical and mechanical part.
The cartridge is used to install the drill and connect it to the rotating shaft. It contains 3-4 cam, between which is placed a drill. The cams are moved by rotating the adjustment sleeve. Anchoring, i.e. cam clenching is done by turning the sleeve by hand or using a special key.
The electrical part is composed of an electric motor, starting systems, reverse direction of rotation and regulation of engine speed, as well as a power cord or battery. A single-phase collector motor is used as a source of movement. To start the engine mounted starting capacitor. The power supply to the engine is carried out through the contact brushes fixed in the holders.
The switch is usually designed as a start button. It is combined with the engine speed regulator. The control circuit on the base of the transistor is made so that when the push-button is amplified, the rotation speed of the motor armature increases.
Diagram of the device reducer cordless screwdriver.
Reverse the direction of rotation of the armature by changing the polarity on the input terminals. The reverse lever is brought to the body of the device.
The mechanical part of the screwdriver includes a gearbox, bearings and a force limiting mechanism. The gearbox transmits the rotational movement of the armature shaft to the main shaft, on which the chuck with a drill is mounted. The planetary gearbox contains a system of gears, satellites and drove. The number of speed steps depends on the number of satellites.
The force limiting mechanism is designed to optimize the load on the screw when tightening. When the screw is fully twisted, the resistance to rotation of the drill increases and the mechanism stops its movement. In total, the mechanism can have up to 16 force control positions.Back to table of contents
The work of the screwdriver in the twisting mode
The installation scheme bits in the screwdriver.
Before starting work, it is necessary to select the required nozzle (drill) according to the size of the screw cap and the shape of the splines (straight or cross). The nozzle is installed in the center between divorced cams and secured in the chuck by rotating the sleeve clockwise by hand. If a key type cartridge is installed, the key is inserted into the slot on the cartridge and rotated clockwise until the nozzle is fastened.
The tip of the nozzle is placed in the slot of the screw, the start button is pressed.
Before starting the device, you should check the correctness of the installation of the direction of rotation - it should correspond to the screw tightening.
Increasing the force of pressing the trigger button with your finger ensures the optimal speed of twisting. When fully screwing in the screw, the force limiting mechanism works, and the drill stops. The finger is removed from the button. The process of tightening the screw is completed. The unscrewing of the screw is done in the same way, but when the directional lever is installed in the opposite position. The optimum value of the torque (power) when screwing the screw into solid and durable materials is established by rotating the ring of the moment adjuster, on which divisions corresponding to different powers are applied.Back to table of contents
When working with a screwdriver, use only the nozzles that are included in the kit.
The operation of the screwdriver implies proper maintenance. First of all, with its help it is impossible to drill holes for a long time. To do this, use a drill. The use of a screwdriver as a drill is allowed only in short-term mode.
When tightening the screws, you must use only the nozzles that are included with this unit. Do not install damaged attachments (drills). All rotating elements, as well as the inner part of the cartridge must be periodically lubricated.
It should monitor the charging of batteries. To eliminate the "memory effect" of the battery before recharging it is recommended to completely discharge. Store the device only in a dry place. During prolonged operation, the possibility of engine overheating should be monitored. Periodically, the device should be turned off until complete cooling.
When working with a screwdriver should be in stock the following tool:
Screwdriver has a fairly simple design. Anyone can use it. But in order to properly resolve the issue of how to use a screwdriver, you should follow certain rules.