Drill in the farm today is simply irreplaceable, almost all masters have it in their arsenal. Some models have a percussion mechanism as part, which is shown by the diagram, which can be seen in fig. one. In this case, the device is more functional. The device can be seen from the diagram in fig. 2, on it under the figure 1 is depicted the speed regulator; under the number 2 - reverse; 3 is the brush holder with the brush itself; 4 is the motor stator; 5 - impeller designed to cool the engine; Under number 6 is the gearbox.
Diagram of the device electric drill.
Tool motor device
The drill has a collector electric motor in its design, which includes 3 main components, among them:
- carbon brushes.
Figure 1. Diagram of the percussion mechanism of the drill.
The first mentioned element is based on electrical steel, which is characteristic of the quality of excellent magnetic permeability. It is made on the principle of a cylinder and has devices for mounting stator windings. The latter are contained there in the amount of two, and their location is opposite each other. The stator is firmly fixed in the main body.
The rotor is represented by a shaft, on the latter a core is installed, made on the basis of the same steel. Along the latter there are grooves removed by an equal step. Winding stacked single wire and have taps that are designed for fixing to the collector plates. This forms an anchor that has segments in its structure. The collector is located on the shank of the shaft and securely fixed on it. The rotor in the process of starting rotates in the inner space of the stator on the bearings. The brushes move along the plates during the unit operation. They are based on graphite.Back to table of contents
During the installation at the time of turning on the drill, the triac controller located in the start button is responsible. This regulator is mounted in the case of the button and is located on a lining made of PCB. The board is equipped in such a way that it has insignificant dimensions, which allows it to be fully located in the space of the trigger. After activating the power button in the device regulator, an immediate break occurs, at this moment the circuit is closed within a meager amount of time. And the regulator is not able to influence the voltage variation, however, it also changes the root-mean-square voltage level.
After the start of the drill, an alternating voltage enters the network.
Figure 2. Drill parts.
In parallel with this, a sinusoidal voltage is applied to the control electrode of the triac. In the period when its level is greater than the triac functioning voltage, the latter opens, which indicates a short circuit, at this moment the current flows through the load.
The wiring diagram and the connection of the installation button in different models from different manufacturing plants can differ. The most simplified of all the schemes and the one that best shows the principle of operation is shown in Fig. 3. One wire from the power cord is connected to the speed controller. In the presented figure, the electrical circuit of the apparatus is visible, where “reg. equipment. "- speed regulator," 1st Art. obm. ”- primary stator winding,“ 2nd level of obm. ”- respectively, secondary,“ 1st brush. ”- first brush.
In order not to get confused, it should be remembered that the speed regulator and the reverse control system are represented by completely different components of the instrument, which in some models even have separate bodies.
Figure 3.Typovaya scheme of the speed controller drill.
Only 2 wires are suitable for the speed controller. And the one that comes out of the speed controller is connected to the beginning of the primary stator. In the absence of reversal, the end of the primary would be conjugated with a rotor brush, and the second brush would be associated with the start of the secondary stator. The secondary end passes to the second wire of the cord, from which the drill is powered during operation.
The rotor begins to work in the other direction at the moment when the end of the primary is connected to the second brush. In the reverse system, a similar connection is made; for this reason, the rotor brushes are mated with the stator windings through it. In fig. 4 shows the connection diagram of the reverse of the device. Wires in the amount of 4 pcs. go to the rotor brushes, those that have a gray color, go to the end of the primary and the beginning of the secondary.
The system for adjusting the revolutions of the apparatus assumes the presence of a capacitor and the connection to the regulator of wires that come from the outlet. If we take into account the installation of the example, then apply only two contacts, which are located below. The system is completely devoid of capacitor, and the second cord wire is connected directly to the stator winding.Back to table of contents
Features of the gearbox apparatus
Figure 4. Diagram of connecting the drill button with reverse.
The drill has a gearbox in the design, which is responsible for reducing the number of revolutions of the working drill and increasing the torque. Many models have a gear reducer, which involves a single gear. You can purchase drills that provide a certain number of gears, there may be two, while the system is like a gearbox, which is equipped with a conventional vehicle - a car.
The wiring diagram of a number of existing installations in the modern market has a shock functionality. Then the master with the presence of such a tool gets the opportunity to equip the holes in the body of the concrete monolith. In such devices, a wavy element is mounted in the lateral region of the large gear, the same washer is opposite.
The scheme, the connection of such an installation have some differences from the above models. Thus, in the process of work that involves the impact mode involved, the drill rests on the surface to be treated, and the wavy components, interacting with a solid obstacle, begin to imitate the blows. These elements in the design after some time of operation of the installation need to be completely replaced.
Connection scheme of different models and manufacturers may differ from the one that was presented in the above example, but the principle of operation of such a device remains the same.