It is good to know the device of the puncher - it means the most efficiently to operate a power tool on a building site. This knowledge ultimately determines how accurately in its parameters it will correspond to one or another of operating conditions, how long and reliably it will serve its owner.
Diagram of the internal part of the punch.
But before proceeding to the design features, consider the principle of operation and the range of practical application of the puncher as one of the builder’s most popular tools today.
Perforator and its purpose
The specified electrical construction tool is a fairly powerful drilling device, different from the traditional electric drill and more modern impact drill.
The scheme of the cartridge punch.
The perforator differs from the first, except for the function of rotation of the drill, by the presence of a longitudinal-axial movement of the nozzle. The reciprocating movement is also present in the work of the impact drill. But in the scheme of its work, this possibility is achieved by the interaction of two gear ratchets, while the percussion percussion effect is ensured by the use of a special pneumatic or electromagnetic mechanism.
Due to this, the specified power tool its working body acts on the surface with a greater force than the impact drill. In addition, drill ratchets clinging to each other cannot communicate to the drill a sufficiently large amplitude of the longitudinal movement than, for its part, the standard punch is different.
This feature determines the scope of its practical application.
The perforator is designed for drilling holes in particularly hard materials (brick, natural stone, concrete).
And he does it much more efficiently, better and faster than the same impact drill.
Modern models are distinguished by their versatility. This is facilitated by the ability to work in 3 modes. To the mode of usual drilling (as at a drill) and drilling with simultaneous blows the mode of a jackhammer is added. The presence of this mode allows you to use the device for shtabirovaniya grooves in the plaster, in lightweight concrete and other relatively soft building materials.Back to table of contents
The main types of drills
All currently known power tools are divided into household and professional.
The second most important division of perforators is the type of drive used for their design:
Diagram of the external part of the punch.
- Network electric perforator. Work only from the local electrical network. For this reason, their operation is limited to the presence in the immediate vicinity of the place of work of a stationary outlet.
- Cordless electric drills. They can be powered both from the local power supply network and from the built-in battery. This feature makes them convenient for facade and other work away from the fixed network. However, they can be equipped with lithium-ion, nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal hydride batteries.
- Pneumatic perforators. They are used in cases when the work is carried out in difficult conditions, in particular, when there is a danger of an explosion, a person is electrocuted, a short circuit due to the abundance of water, etc.
- Petrol drills. Such systems are used in conditions of large and prolonged loads away from sources of electricity (for example, during large-scale road works).
Features of perforator design
The scheme of the main parts of the punch, which often break.
The impulse of blow of the electric tool directed on the processed surface, is created at the expense of either the electromagnetic, or pneumatic block. When using an electromagnetic mechanism, two induction coils provide longitudinal movement of the core.
If we are talking about a tool with pneumatics, then in this case the blow is made by a piston moving inside the cylinder due to the sufficient compression created in it. As a result, the hammer strikes the end of the working nozzle, which simultaneously with the drilling gradually destroys the structure of the material being processed.
Perforators with two types of electric motor location are currently in operation: horizontal and vertical. The first type is mainly used in light household devices, the second - in medium and heavy (professional) tools.
Devices with a horizontal engine at the expense of the specified scheme, as a rule, are more compact, more convenient when drilling in hard-to-reach places. However, this arrangement differs in a number of noticeable flaws. In particular, longitudinally located engines experience increased shock load during operation, as well as slightly worse and slower cooled than vertical engines.
Modes of punch.
Accordingly, perforators with a vertical arrangement of the electric motor are devoid of these drawbacks. At the same time, such a scheme provides a sufficiently large amplitude of movement of the piston-firing pair. This happens due to the use of a special crank mechanism in the tool, which increases the piston stroke. As a result, perforators with a vertical electric motor transfer intensive operation better than models with a horizontal engine.
The mechanism of the shock pulse is the most important block of any punch. The effectiveness and reliability of the entire perforating device ultimately depends on its efficiency and reliability.
As mentioned above, the perforators on the principle of the formation of a shock pulse are divided into electromechanical and electropneumatic. At the same time, tools based on pneumatics constitute the vast majority of products in use today.
Electropneumatic tools have gained such popularity by the fact that they, at the minimum rated power of an electric motor, develop considerable energy of a shock pulse. Pneumatic impact is provided either with a “drunk” (swinging) bearing (light and partially medium punchers) or with a crank mechanism (medium and heavy vehicles).
Vibration damping perforator.
In modern perforators, two types of anti-vibration system are used: active and passive. The first option is used exclusively in models with a powerful power unit, the second - in the "weaker" models. The basis of this system is a counterweight with a shock-absorbing spring, which takes on the recoil energy.
The transmission of rotation from the electric motor to the working cartridge is provided by the gearbox. At the same time, it activates the strike mechanism. The gearbox is an interconnected system of gears of various configurations and is characterized by a certain gear ratio. The change of this number is due to the electronic controller.
The case of the device can be both metal and plastic. But most often in its manufacture combine metal with impact-resistant plastic.
Thus, the perforator is a rather complicated device, the circuit of which is optimally “fitted” to the specific functional tasks of processing especially solid building materials.