To deal with how to use the level, you do not need to take any special courses or go to the geological institute. It will only be necessary to study all the nuances of the work and become familiar with the technology, after which you can independently perform measurements no worse than experienced specialists.
The level is used for carrying out necessary measurements before construction.
The principle of geodesy at the construction site
In the process of making plans in nature, it will be necessary to determine the difference in the heights of several points on the base sections and the elevation, which is considered to be a conditional level. Most often, work is performed using the leveling and geodetic rails. Thus, it is possible to define and carry out geometric leveling.
The process of measuring the level.
In this case, the optical axis of the instrument is horizontal. From the mark of the conditional level it is necessary to find the difference in the heights of the indicators by marks on the slats. In the course of work, each such point is located at a distance of up to 100 m from the point of installation of the level. The level must be measured at least 3 times, as a result it is necessary to take the arithmetic average value. Based on the data, you can prepare a plan of the land.
In the process of considering the principle of operation of this device, one cannot but mention an important component, namely the leveling rod. This is a special bar that is installed vertically at points to measure heights on the bases. This product is made of wood or metal (in most cases of aluminum).
The device has a standard length (3-4 m). For convenience of movement, the rail can be folded in half. Modern options of slats have a telescopic sliding mechanism.Back to table of contents
List of tools you need for leveling
On the sides of the standard slats for leveling, in most cases, a graduation is applied: on the front side, the marking is made in the metric system of measurement, and on the reverse side - in the inch. First of all, the rail must be installed with a special mark on the bottom metal bracket to the center of the measurement point.
The device level.
For convenience, there are special handles to hold the device at this point. In quality strips, which are made of iron-nickel alloys, special bubble levels are provided, which are used to control the vertical position of the plank.
In the process of carrying out work on the ground during the initial study of the development being prepared, it is important to carry out comprehensive modeling of the structure being produced in overall interaction with the landscape of nature.
The technology of photographing measuring points with the transfer of real-scale values as data for computer software allows the simulation of an object and its interaction with the environment.
You will need elements such as:
- special software;
Leveling methods on the ground
Levels are a large group of devices that are used to determine and record the exact position of various elements in height. Elements in this case can be arbitrary tags and ground areas, and not specific landmarks.
The essence of leveling is to determine the difference in height between the levels of the fabricated structure. The total amount of construction work will depend on the magnitude of this excess and proper measurement. For example, from the planned initial level of the first floor of a building, it is possible to calculate the depth of the basement, the groundwater flow, the design of the drainage system, the type of insulation of blind area, etc.
There are the following methods of leveling:
Points of installation of a level for carrying out measurements.
- Hydrostatic method. Based on the property of the location of the fluid in the conforming vessels. It has high accuracy and allows measurements outside the limits of visibility between specific points. In this case, measurements are associated with the need to lay and fill hoses and pipes of great length with liquid, which in some cases is not very convenient.
- Barometric method. Used in the planning process of large structures of architecture. To implement this method, you will need to use high-precision barometers and special software for computers. This method is not used in the construction of private houses.
- Trigonometric measurements by turning theodolite. This method is good because in this case no helpers with additional straps are needed. Theodolite measurements can be carried out in horizontal and vertical angles. However, it is much more difficult to deal with the principle of operation of this device than with the operation of a conventional level. The disadvantage is that the theodolite is much more expensive.
- Geometrical measurements of elevation angles with the help of ordinary levels are made exclusively in one plane and need to be mounted additional marks (slats can be used) in their movement from one place to another. The journal will need to make the appropriate entries.
The simplicity and reliability of measurements of the standard level, its compatibility with the goals of construction make this device the most popular in the planning process of many types of work: from pouring the base to checking the accuracy of the roof.Back to table of contents
Construction and classification of standard levels
Schemes of location of the axes during the calibration of the level: A - B - schemes of the location of the axes during the calibration of the level, d - position of the level during the third calibration.
This device has a simple design. On the tripod is the main optical-mechanical unit, which is integrated lens system. This node should ensure horizontal alignment of the beam, while only minimal deviation is allowed. Lenses can give a straight or inverted pattern. In the latter case, the measuring rail must also be turned over during installation on the ground.
In the upper part of the design of all levels you need to build level sensors. The precise installation of the device on the ground determines the quality of further measurements. A qualified specialist will regularly check the values of these sensors, performing if necessary, their adjustment with special tilt levers of the optic-mechanical unit. You can timely detect the random deviation of the device from the exact location on the ground and do not re-measure.
Before using the level and slats, you will need to become familiar with the main types of devices for geometric measurements of elevation height.
The simplest and most affordable is a level with a cylindrical level, which is located on the sight tube.
More accurate is the meter with automatic compensation of installation errors, but it costs much more. It is convenient to use it in the process of measuring on problem soils: rubble, sand, etc. Devices with an electronic measurement system are used in the process of designing large-scale objects. This design is difficult to configure and operate.
According to the measurement accuracy class, the leveling structures can be divided into such main groups as:
- technical devices (marking H-10, H-12, etc.);
- exact devices (designations from N-3 to H-9);
- high-precision devices (designations from N-05 to H-2.5).
The numbers in the marking indicate the average measurement error in mm / km. It should be understood that even a technical device will give a deviation of about 1 cm per 1 km distance to the object. This is enough to carry out accurate design and proper planning of a large number of construction works.Back to table of contents
How to use the level correctly: a step by step guide
The principle of the laser level.
The first thing you need to install a tripod. The screws for fastening on all legs of the tripod will need to be loosened. After that, each support element must be pushed to the required length. In this case, the length may be different, since the tool must be mounted on rough terrain. The top of the tripod is set in a horizontal position. Then you need to tighten the fastening screws on all supporting elements. Most of the devices are equipped with smooth fasteners for correction, which are mounted on the legs of the tripod. With their help, you can fine-tune the horizontal position of the upper platform.
The next stage is mounted leveling. The instrument tube itself is attached to the tripod with several screws. Next you need to use level sensors. With the help of the rotation of the screws for adjustment, it is necessary to achieve a central location of the bubble levels in relation to the features applied to them. For convenience, the first thing you need to set the bubble level in one window, not paying attention to another. Further the next level is adjusted taking into account the position tracking of the first one. You need to gradually adjust the device to achieve horizontal position on the installation site.
After that the optic-mechanical unit is focused. Before working with an optical level, you will need to adjust the eyepiece of the aligned tube according to the user's eyesight. The focus of the standard design of this type is as follows. The device must be pointed at a well-lit and rather large element, after which it will operate with settings until the filament mesh is displayed on this element as clearly as possible. Further, the same steps should be repeated with the slats, which will be installed on another, not too lighted area. Experimenting with adjusting the focus on elements with different illumination can help in the process of further measurements.
When the device is installed as accurately as possible, aligned and focused, you can measure and record observations. Two strips need to put on the front and rear of the device. The front will show the value of the resulting height, the back will be used for the calibration of indicators. First of all, you need to point the level on the side of the black back bar.
After focusing, you need to record the indicator by strokes. After that, the focus is made on the front plate, the average value is set on its side in red. This process is called leveling the middle line. In this case, the results will be accurate, if necessary, you can easily repeat the measurements.
Speaking about how to properly use the level, you should know that everything is simple. You just need to know all the nuances.