Very often, homeworkers perform a series of works in which it is impossible to do without a manual router. The most common and versatile is the manual submersible mill.
Drawing hand mill.
With the help of a hand mill, wood can be used to make figures of various shapes, from straightforward to very complex, which is rather an art than just a job.
The list of works that can be performed using the specified tool
As already mentioned, it is possible to make parts with the most varied form with a manual mill, and all operations that are performed by this equipment are conventionally divided into the following categories:
Scheme elevator for frezery.
- Making grooves, quarters and grooves. In order to make any grooves in the workpiece that can be open or closed, it is very difficult to do without a manual router. Most often, such elements must be made in the case when making one-piece or detachable connections.
- Making the edges. This operation is carried out in the case when such elements as beadings, cornices, platbands and other moldings are made. It can be carried out in the design of furniture and other crafts made of wood. Besides the fact that such elements carry a functional load, they also enter as decorative elements.
- Performance of complex contours and surfaces. This operation is performed during the manufacture of exclusive furniture and other works of wood. In the manufacture of furniture, when it is necessary to repeat several elements with high accuracy, use templates. In this case, it turns out almost perfectly repeat complex shapes on different blanks.
- Execution of special items. You can also make special elements, such as spikes, clamps, grooves and others, that carry only functional load. In mass production, special machines are used for their production, but if you need to make several elements at home, you can also do it with a hand mill.
What cutters are used and their purpose
This tool performs wood processing with the help of cutters, which consist of their shank and working part. The diameter of the shank is usually 6, 8.12 mm, and the shape of the cutting part can be very different and made of different materials. If it is necessary to process soft wood, then mills from tool steel are used, and for more hard rocks or aluminum the mills should be from hard alloys.
To do the work properly with your own hands, you need to precisely fix the mill. Its fixation in a vertical position provides a mechanism for immersion. To ensure this provision using different devices. This may be a guide bearing, which is attached to the cutter or a guide sleeve mounted on the cutter surface, other devices can also be used.
If a guide roller is used, then during work it moves along the surface of the workpiece and thus ensures a constant distance between the cutter and the workpiece, such cutters are called edging, they can be of the following types:
- profile, they are designed to perform curly profiles;
- conical, they are used to perform the edge at an angle of 45 degrees;
- molding, used to round the edges, their diameter can be 3-16 mm;
- disk, they are designed to perform horizontal or vertical seam;
- folded, used to create quarters;
- fillet, allow you to make a fillet to give the edge a decorative look.
The right direction when working as a mill.
If the mill does not have a bearing, then it is called a mortise and can be used to machine parts in any place. In order to use such a tool, an extra fixture is needed.
- rectangular, they are used to make grooves, this is the most commonly used tool;
- fillet, they are used to create semicircular decorative grooves and grooves;
- V-shaped, allow you to make a groove with a wall that is inclined at an angle of 45 degrees, they are used for embedding letters and decorations;
- "Dovetail", usually used during the production of furniture, with its help create a closed or open connection with a spike.
Setting the router
In order to do the work, you need to adjust the depth of the cutter. The essence of this setting is that after the mill reaches a certain depth, the limiter is triggered and it cannot move further. If the work should be carried out at a great depth, then it should be done in several stages.
If you compare the router with other electric tools, it works at a much higher speed, it usually exceeds 10,000 rpm.
The device of the machine for milling.
This is necessary in order to obtain a better cut surface. It is necessary to adjust the speed, because if it is very high, charring of the part can occur. The speed of rotation of the cutter depends on its diameter and on the material with which the work is performed.
The quality of the surface is not as affected by the speed of rotation of the cutter as the speed of its linear movement. The larger the diameter of the working tool, the higher should be the speed of its movement. The higher the hardness of the workpiece, the less should be set the speed of rotation of the working tool. If the mill has a diameter of 40 mm, then its rotation speed should be within 10,000 rpm, and for a mill with a diameter of 10 mm it can be 20,000 rpm.
For performance of various works it is possible to use passing or opposite rotation of the working tool, counter milling is usually used, at which the mill with the mill moves in one direction. Associated milling is rarely used, only in cases where there is a likelihood of flaking. This may lead to the fact that the router will throw up with it, therefore it is necessary to work with even greater care.Back to table of contents
The order of work
First, the correct fixing of the milling cutter is carried out, then the engine is set to the required revs and the milling depth is adjusted. In order to ensure the correct movement of the cutter, use additional devices.
The milling cutter is mounted on the workpiece, its guide element is pressed against the guide edge and the engine is turned on. First, the cutter smoothly sinks to the required depth, and then slowly moves along the selected path.
While fixing the working tool and setting, the equipment should be disconnected from the power supply. We need to take a stable position and do the work carefully, carefully.
It is necessary to ensure reliable fastening of the workpiece, which is processed so that it does not break during operation. At one time it is necessary to cut a layer not exceeding 3 mm. There should be no parts in your clothes that can be wound on the mill during work and lead to injury. It is recommended to connect a vacuum cleaner to the router, or to use a respirator, as it produces fine dust that can harm the body.