The device of the band saw and its principle of operation

Today, as many years ago, wood, due to its ease of processing and low price, is perhaps the most popular natural building material. It is actively used by both individual homeowners and numerous construction firms.


Sawmill is used for cutting logs.

Many private entrepreneurs who regularly work with wood choose a semi-industrial type of machining. Therefore, many are interested in the device of the band saw.

Purpose and principle of operation of the device

The band sawmill is a complex machine (Fig. 1) designed for the longitudinal sawing of wood of all degrees of hardness into standard sawn timbers - beams, edged or unedged boards, slats, carriage, veneer and other blanks. Subsequently, they are used in many areas, primarily in the construction and manufacture of furniture.

Device of a band saw

Figure 1. The device of a band saw.

The use of this device allows you to produce high quality products with specified dimensions. This is facilitated by the option to quickly and accurately adjust the parameters of sawing wood.

Nowadays, a lot of different schemes of horizontal band sawing machine have been developed, in some projects even the standard manual chainsaw is being actively used. But they all operate on the same principle.

It is reduced to cutting with a sawband, moved horizontally, fixedly mounted on a log platform (or some kind of semi-finished wooden product, which is brought to the necessary conditions).

It is tensioned between two pulleys — the leading and the driven — with a force that ensures a fixed straight-line slitting of the wood material.

The dimension of the resulting lumber is set by the operator of the sawmill. At the same time he uses hydraulic devices or electronic ruler. Cutting speed is also set electronically. Laying logs on the frame, clamping and turning the blanks are done manually.

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Components of a band saw

The sawmill consists of the following parts:

  • saw frame;
  • fixed guide;
  • movable guide;
  • the screw mechanism lifting a saw frame;
  • a mechanism (spring or hydraulic), with which the band saw is pulled;
  • driving pulley;
  • driven pulley;
  • driven wheel slider;
  • casing enclosing saw pulleys;
  • electric motor;
  • eccentric clamps for logs;
  • saw blade retainer;
  • V-belt transmission;
  • rail guide to move the sawmill;
  • coolant tank.
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The device is a band saw horizontal machine

Saw frame

Figure 2. The saw frame is assembled from a pair of welded soles. Metal rollers are attached to it, thanks to which the frame moves.

The saw frame (fig. 2) is a structure assembled from a pair of welded soles. On it are mounted metal rollers, providing the movement of the frame.

The bed of the sawmill is U-shaped. She is going out of 2 parallel channels. In this case, the leading sawing wheel is fixed statically on one frame end, while the driven wheel, moving longitudinally, is mounted on the other end.

In the middle of the saw frame are guides. They are attached to the base of the device with brackets. These devices can be disassembled into several parts, so that they are conveniently transported from place to place. Bottom of the guide elements are support rollers with bolted anchors. Support racks for the log are installed on top of the guides. The entire complex of the saw frame is moved by a chain mechanism, which is located in the channel connecting the two guides on the top.

The function of the cutting element in this equipment is performed by a band saw up to 60 mm wide. It is tensioned using a screw-spring or hydraulic mechanism. The installation and dismantling of the cutting tape involves 2 special locks that are attached to the machine and the crawler of the driven wheel.

Connection diagram of the electric power sawmill

Connection diagram of the electric motor of the sawmill.

The tensioning mechanism is designed so that it can be used to adjust the position of the driven pulley in order to prevent the band saw from coming off the wheels. For the edges of the pulley, it protrudes to the height of the cutting tooth, so that the correct tooth separation is not disturbed.

The control panel of the sawmill is located on the operator’s side for ease of sawing. Here are the rulers for accurate measurement of the thickness of the finished lumber. The main working area in which the sawing of wood is carried out is clearly visible. The optimum platform height should be comfortable for the worker. Usually the frame is highlighted.

The sawmill is equipped with a special tank for coolant. It is used to prevent sticking of sawdust to the band saw and pulleys. Liquid from the tank is supplied to the cutting site by means of special taps on the container.

Two rams are fixed on the stands of the bed, with the help of which the frame is raised. For the movement of the saw carriage serves a special screw mechanism, powered by an electric motor.

Thus, the band sawmill is a convenient machine for high-quality timber harvesting.

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