How to work as a mill

If a person is interested in carpentry, then he can not do without a router. They are produced in large quantities and a wide range. The main thing is to understand how to work as a mill.

Diagram of the router

Diagram of the router.

This tool allows you to solve many issues when carrying out repairs in the apartment or repairing furniture. It greatly expands the capabilities of a person with woodwork. A variety of wooden products can be made by hand, while spending a minimum of effort. Anyone who understands how to work with a milling machine is able to repair and decorate furniture and wooden furnishings.


When choosing a router it is necessary to pay attention to the working field, the optimal size of which is 12000x1200 mm.

Milling cutter (or milling machine) is a hand-held electric tool for processing wooden products by milling. This method involves the figure processing of the edges of the product, the manufacture and processing of grooves and various holes. The main purpose of hand-made copies is woodworking, but they can be used on soft metals and plastics, using special mills and tooling.

The principle of the mill is very simple: the processing of the workpiece is made by rotating the cutting element - a milling cutter. At the same time simultaneously in the longitudinal direction the mill itself is moved (with the workpiece attached) or the workpiece (during fixing). A milling cutter is a cutting tool that contains one or more cutting elements (teeth, blades).

Existing tool types

Main types of milling machines

The main types of milling machines: a - cantilever vertical milling machines, 6 - milling machines of continuous action (carousel-milling and drum-milling), c - copying (vertical and horizontal) milling machines, g - vertical milling besmolno machines; d - longitudinal milling machines; e - universal milling machines (console and beskonsolny), g - horizontal console-milling machines.

Household manual milling cutters are of three types: top, edge and lamellar. With the top router, you can perform almost any type of work. It is divided into two structures: immersion and fixed. The design of the submersible type provides for the movement of the electric motor together with the cutter in the vertical direction along two special guides. The motor case is damped by the spring and is also abutted against the workpiece during milling. The stationary mill has a fixed electric motor, and when changing the depth of treatment, it must be moved and re-fastened. In this design, changing the depth of processing without stopping the rotation of the cutter is impossible.

Other mills have designs that allow only some operations. So, edging is designed for profiling and processing of the edges of the workpiece. Lamella, on the contrary, is not able to process edges, and perfectly mills the grooves on the ends of the workpiece. Such tools have a narrow focus, but have one big advantage - they are small-sized.

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Milling machine design

The top milling cutter consists of two main parts: the electric motor and the base, which are interconnected by a lifting mechanism (guide), which makes it possible to fix different depths of the cutter’s immersion. The mechanism has an adjusting screw with which it is possible to make a fine adjustment. On the motor shaft is fixed chuck with which the cutter is installed.

To ensure the quality of processing equipment is equipped with a straight guide that helps move the cutter to the required distance in the plane of the workpiece. Some specimens are also equipped with a circular guide that helps to make circular motions when machining large diameter wheels. For milling a groove, a guide is installed in the form of an angle stop.

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Types of work for the router

Diagram of the manual router

The device of a manual mill: 1 - base - plywood (acrylic, MDF), 2 - mill 6 mm, 3 - reciprocal hole in the base of the mill, 4 - what should happen, 5 - hairpin (nail without a hat is suitable).

Frazer designed for a wide variety of woodwork. If they work properly, it will not be difficult to create a hole of any shape, to make any grooves and grooves. In this case, the holes can have a different shape not only in one cross section, but also a different shape of one hole in thickness.

An important type of work is edge profiling. Eaves, baseboards, glazing beads, profiled bars for window frames, etc. can be made with household tools. Milling cutter allows you to prepare not only a longitudinal profile of a different type, but also to create an ornament and a decorative edge on the edges of the blank. Such processing, for example, will allow you to create a frame for the picture. If experience with the router is not enough, then the decorative edges are made using a template.

The household milling cutter will allow to perform many works in the house. With it, for example, you can make a groove for the lock in the door jamb. Various elements of the connection of timber during construction are quite feasible mill. When conducting different types of work, you only need to select a universal type of mill and install the necessary mill.

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Selecting the type of cutter

The type of cutter is selected by type of milling and workpiece material. When processing soft wood, components are used from light metal, and for hard wood - more durable mills. So, for soft wood, you can use the cutters with high-speed blades such as HSS, and for hard wood - type HM (carbide).

Types of cutters

Types of cutters.

Another classification divides the cutters into bearing and non-bearing. Instances without bearings are more versatile, and they can be used to produce almost any treatment. A large number of cutters with bearings that are installed flush with the blade on both sides. This design allows to improve the quality and accuracy of some types of milling (profile, edge, any processing edge).

By the type of milling cutters are divided into several types. Profile mills are used for milling the edge of the workpiece in order to impart a profile, decorating protrusions, rounding, etc. Such mills are often bearing. The shape is usually cylindrical. For rounding the edges are usually used milling cutters.

Cone-shaped mills are designed for milling profiles with different angle of inclination. Corners can be created by machining holes, various cuts, etc.

Slot (rectangular) used for the manufacture of rectangular grooves. Cutters are available in a wide range of diameter, type and length of the blade. In the manufacture of grooves or holes with a slope at an angle of 45 degrees, V-shaped cutters are used.

Diagram of the components of the milling table

Diagram of the components of the milling table.

Disk mills are designed for the manufacture of grooves, which are located in the horizontal direction. This type of work is important when connecting the boards to each other during construction, i.e. during the formation of end connectors. For the trapezoid type of spikes of the elements of the connection, elements like “dovetail's nest” or “dovetail” are used.

Specialized mills are also used: folded ones - for milling quarters; fillet - for special (fillet) profiling edge; fitting - to copy a part or fit it to the size of an analog (such mills are equipped with bearings).

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Install and secure cutter

Milling cutter to the table top

The scheme of installation of the router to the tabletop.

In order to start working with a mill, it is necessary to install and fix the mill. After selecting the desired cutter type and size, it is inserted into the cartridge. To do this, the shank is immersed in the socket of the cutter chuck to a depth of 20 mm. The cartridge case is rotated clockwise until it clicks. Then the nut on the chuck is tightened with a key. The milling cutter is installed and fastened.

Before milling, you should set the depth of the cutter in the workpiece. For these purposes, it is necessary to use the movable depth setting limiter. At the same time, the fine-tuning knob should be installed in the middle, between the “+” and “-” marks.

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Primary requirements

Rotation direction when working as a mill

The direction of rotation when working with a router.

Milling should be carried out without exceeding the speed of rotation of the mill. It is set taking into account the type of work and material of the workpiece. Increasing the diameter of the cutter requires reducing its rotation speed: for a cutter with a diameter of up to 10 mm, the speed can be 20,000 rpm, and with a diameter of up to 40 mm - 10,000 rpm. Requirements for setting the speed of rotation, as a rule, are specified in the instructions for the router.

During the work the frezer can be held by hands or fixed on a workbench. If the router is fed manually, then the workpiece must be securely fastened. When fixing the router, various devices can be used in which guides should be used to move the workpiece (straight or arched). When forming the edge profile, narrow rulers fixed perpendicular to the workpiece should be used as a stop and guide.

To ensure safety, the following condition must be met: the direction of movement of the router should be opposite to the direction of rotation of the mill

When the directions coincide, an unplanned acceleration can be given to the instrument, which leads to the instrument slipping out of the hands.

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Work with a manual mill

The influence of the nozzle diameter on the speed of the mill

The influence of the nozzle diameter on the speed of the mill.

The wooden blank is fixed on the workbench, so that there is free access to the processing site. The necessary guides for moving the router (straight, arc-shaped, ruler) are fixed. Fraser is holding with both hands.

The milling cutter is fed to the workpiece surface in such a way that the milling cutter rests on the workpiece. By lightly pressing the mill, the rotating mill is entered into the workpiece at the desired depth (up to the bit of the mill). Gently moving the router in the desired direction (along the guide), the groove of the required depth and length is made. When forming deep grooves (cuts), the operation should be carried out in several passes. The depth of the cutter in one run is recommended in the range of 5-6 mm. Moving the router is only in one direction. For inexperienced machinists, it is advisable to use the mill movement limiters and additional guides, which are mounted on the workpiece or workbench.

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Work on a vertical mill

Vertical mill provides a stationary mount it on the workbench. In this case, the workpiece is moved manually relative to the router. All guides, as a rule, are already provided in the mill design. Immersion cutters to the desired depth is a mill, and then the longitudinal or arcuate movement is attached to the workpiece. The basic rules are similar to the rules for using a manual router.

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Accessories for the router

The simplest device for profiling the edges of the workpiece is a straight rail. It is fixed so as to limit the movement of the router deep into the workpiece. So, as the mill depth limiter allows you to control the profile depth in the vertical direction, the rail will provide control of the profile width in the horizontal direction. The groove of the desired size is guaranteed when using stops that stop the longitudinal movement of the cutter. If the groove width is larger than the diameter of the cutter, then the use of restrictive frames is recommended, which allows to stop the movement of the cutter in the transverse direction.

When forming arcuate grooves, the use of a circular stop is recommended. To do this, draw a circle of the desired radius, in the center of which a hole is made to fix the center of the stop, and the limiter itself moves to the required distance from the center. The movement of the router is limited to such an emphasis in the outward direction.

In the process of working with the router, the need arises to use such an additional tool as:

  • drill;
  • file;
  • pliers;
  • screwdriver;
  • wrenches and end wrenches;
  • calipers;
  • line meter;
  • protractor;
  • a set of templates;
  • vice;
  • knife.

Frezer - very necessary and convenient tool for carpentry work. If you learn to work correctly with a mill, then the manufacture of complex profiled products will not cause much difficulty. This tool will significantly expand the possibilities of repair and construction carried out in-house.

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