Many people prefer to make various items using wood for home purposes. They like creativity, search. For independent woodworking it is very important to have the necessary equipment at home. One of these devices is a homemade mill.
Milling cutter is necessary for processing wooden products.
What exactly is the mill? This is primarily a cost savings. In addition, to design and manufacture a milling cutter with your own hands means effectively solving the issue of its dimensions, matching them with the free area in the house, and a specific purpose.
Simple frezer on a tree
The simplest milling machine for wood consists of the following elements: a bed, a table, an electric motor with a fixed milling cutter, a longitudinal stop. The bed (frame) is a metal frame, on which a vertical motor and a milling table are mounted. The frame design can be any (you can use a previously made for other purposes design).
The device of the machine for milling.
The main working unit includes an electric motor and a tool for fixing the cutter. A standard collet chuck is used as a tool for fixing the cutter. The connection of the cartridge with the motor shaft through a thin-walled steel pipe. The milling cutter is fixed in the chuck. The electric motor must be high-speed (3000 rpm) and powerful enough (at least 1.1 kW). The milling table (tabletop) is mounted on top of the frame frame. You can make it from textolite sheet. Perhaps the use of thick (multilayer) plywood, wood or particleboard. The main condition is strength. The most reliable and durable option - steel or aluminum sheet. The size is determined by the location of the machine and does not play a significant role.
A hole is drilled in the tabletop directly opposite the motor axis. The hole diameter is selected 10-15 mm larger than the diameter of the cutter. The hole must correspond to the maximum diameter of the cutter. When fixing the entire working unit to the frame of the frame, the cutter must pass through the hole and protrude above the table surface to a height equal to the size of the milled profile.
Table of the diameter of the cutter and the speed of rotation of the material being processed.
On the surface of the table is a longitudinal support. The stop is made of a plank or a wooden bar with a thickness (height) of at least 30 mm. Width does not matter. The length is equal to the length of the table. A channel in the form of a semicircle with a radius of 10–20 mm greater than the radius of the hole in the table is formed in the middle of the side surface of the board (bar). With the help of clamps, the stop is attached to the tabletop to the right of the cutter so that its location is perpendicular to the side edge of the table. Fastening is made from two parties. The channel on the stop should be located opposite the hole in the tabletop.
The simplest router is ready. The workpiece is manually fed smoothly to the mill with pressing to the table surface. The side face of the blank is guided along the longitudinal stop, which acts as a guide rail. Fixing the stop with clamps allows you to move it to the desired distance. Moving is parallel to the original location. If you need to mill the side edge of the workpiece, sliding on the stop, it is moved so that the cutter is in the channel on the surface of the stop.Back to table of contents
Simple frezer with two stops
The scheme of installation of the router to the tabletop.
The construction of a simple milling cutter becomes a bit more complicated if it is necessary to process the end of a long workpiece. In this case, it is necessary to introduce another stop into the design - transverse. For its placement in the longitudinal emphasis is a change. It is made of board, which is mounted on the table with a side edge perpendicular to the tabletop. Instead of a semicircular canal, a rectangular cut is made in the board. The length of the cut is 50-100 mm, and height - 25-35 mm.
The cross stop is made of a wooden bar with a height of 20-30 mm, a width of 30-40 mm. The length of this stop is equal to the width of the table. The cross stop is passed through the cut in the longitudinal stop and secured with clamps at the edges to the table. Its movement is possible within the length of the notch in the longitudinal stop. This ensures the longitudinal and transverse direction of the workpiece.Back to table of contents
Simple milling cutters have many drawbacks associated with the difficulty of replacing the cutter, the lack of proper regulation and functional limitations. With your own hands, you can make a more complex universal milling cutter. Versatility is achieved by changing the mounting system of the working unit and the design of the table and the longitudinal stop.Back to table of contents
Manufacturing universal milling table
Universal milling table is a tabletop with a square window in the center and runners on its three edges. The table top is made in the form of a slab with a smooth surface with a minimum thickness of 20 mm. It can be made of a monolithic plate or a type-setting of boards, but with the subsequent lining of the sheet. The dimensions of the plate are chosen at the discretion of the owner.
The mounting of the working unit is carried out not to the bed, but to the table top.
The scheme of manufacture of the cover for the milling table.
A square metal plate with a central hole for the motor shaft, four holes at the corners for attaching to the table and four holes for attaching to the engine is fixed on the working unit. Plate thickness - 6-10 mm. The dimensions of the sides correspond to the dimensions (diameter) of the engine.
In the center of the tabletop a square window is cut through with the dimensions of the sides that are 2-5 mm larger than the dimensions of the metal plate. From the bottom of the table top, in the corners of the window, metal strips are fastened with threaded holes for fastening the working unit plate. The working unit is placed on top of the table window and secured with screws. The fixing screws must be adjustment, i.e. allow adjustment of the gap between the plate and the planks of the table.
On two opposite edges of the table top, the runners are fixed in the form of an aluminum profile with a T-shaped notch. Runners are intended for ensuring movement of the carriage of an emphasis.Back to table of contents
Universal longitudinal stop
Longitudinal stop is made of well-treated board with a minimum thickness of 25 mm and a width of at least 150 mm. The length of the board is equal to the width of the table. On the board in the center of the side edge, a rectangular cutout is made to allow the cutter to enter into it with the extreme movement of the support on the table. The dimensions of the cutout correspond to the dimensions of the cutter with an allowance. End plates with a roller, a clamp (comb) with a locking block and an end plate serving as a transverse stop are installed on the board.
Milling machine with manual feed: a - general view, b - kinematic diagram, 1, 5 - guide bars, 2 - toothed sector, 3 - mill, 4 - fence, 6 - control panel, 7 - additional spindle bearing, 8 - bracket , 9 - arm lifting handwheel, 10 - belt tension handwheel, 11 - electric motor, 12 - spindle, 13 - spindle adjustment knob in height, 14 - bed frame, 15 - spindle rotation speed switch, 16 - switch, 17 - table.
The longitudinal emphasis is made in the form of a carriage; therefore, metal strips with rollers are fixed on the ends of the board. The rollers are installed at the bottom of the plank with such an account that it allows you to put them in the "T-shaped notches of the runners of the table-top. The lower edge of the bar is bent, and a threaded hole is drilled on the curved part to install the stopper. The stopper is a screw with a "lamb" with a diameter of at least 10 mm, after installation it should fall on the bottom surface of the table top.
The clamp with the locking block is designed to press the workpiece in a vertical plane. It is installed on the board in the right side. The clamp and block are made of wooden bar with a thickness of at least 20 mm and a width of at least 40 mm. The clamp has a length of at least 100 mm. Its lower end is sawed at an angle of 30 degrees. At the beveled end of the bar is made "comb" by longitudinal cuts with a length of 10-15 mm.
The comb can be replaced with rubber. In the center of the bar in the longitudinal direction, retreating by 30-40 mm from the comb, the cut is made with a length of 20-30 mm for attaching to the board of the support with the possibility of moving the clamp. The cutting width must match the size of the mounting screw (8-10 mm). The locking block is made from the same bar and has a length of at least 60 mm. In the bar of the stopper two holes for mounting are drilled.
The end plate is made in the form of a shelf from a metal strip 3-5 mm thick or wood. The width of the strip is 40-60 mm. The length of the horizontal part - at least 40 mm, vertical - at least 50 mm. In the vertical plane, two longitudinal slits are made parallel to the side edges of the plate. The length of the slot - 20-30 mm, width - under the size of the mounting screw (7-10 mm).
The assembly of the longitudinal stop begins with the fastening in the left part of the aluminum profile with a T-shaped notch for mounting and moving the end plate. The profile length is 20-40 cm. The height from the lower edge of the board abutment to the profile is selected 20-30 mm more than the height of the milled workpiece. Bolts for fixing the end plate are installed in the profile slot. On the bolts reinforced plate. Fastening is made with the help of “sheep”. In the right side of the board is set clamp and lock block. The block is fixed motionless with two bolts or screws. The clamp is fixed with a bolt with a "lamb". Both elements are installed parallel to each other and at an angle of 30 degrees to the vertical. A gap of up to 10 mm is created between the block and the clamp to adjust the angle of the clamp.Back to table of contents
Assembly of a milling machine
Assembly of the router starts with fixing the table top to the frame. Then the working unit is lowered into the table window and secured with the adjusting screws. The rollers of the carriage of the longitudinal stop are placed in the table runners, and the stop is fixed with stoppers on both sides.
The tool necessary for the manufacture of the router:
- electric drill;
- set of wrenches;
- hacksaw for wood and metal;
Homemade frezer for wood - a very useful thing in the economy. Given the need, you can assemble a simple or universal design.