For the implementation of the full range of woodworking with a manual mill or on a milling table, not only ordinary tools, such as various size cutters, but also additional devices are needed, which will help to perform more complex work. The tool must have the ability to create a blank of such a shape, which is necessary according to the master's idea.
Milling on a special copying device.
Some of these devices are included with the instrument, but if they are not available or if you plan to make it yourself, then additional parts can be made manually. As a rule, they are quite simple to manufacture. In addition to various stops, you can make a copier for the router with your own hands and install the structure on the base frame.
It is possible to build a milling and copying machine by yourself using a manual router. The device can be of different designs, but the task is one thing - to convey the movement of the working head to the device that cuts the material as clearly as possible along the profile-holder.
It is not always possible to buy a finished machine with a copier, therefore, often it is made independently from improvised means. It is recommended to assemble it first, it is difficult to adjust the copier to the serial device, it requires deep reworking.
Characteristics of the works themselves
Milling machines equipped with copiers are used for volumetric manipulations and for machining planes. They cope with works that use three-dimensional forms, engraving of various forms, drawings, patterns, inscriptions. Simple milling functions are also within their power. Such designs are distinguished by their simplicity, but they are able to perform surprisingly complex patterns and shapes.
For work with such a machine, not only wood is suitable, but also cast iron, steel, non-ferrous metals, for this purpose high-speed tools made of hard alloys are used. Commercially on similar units, but, of course, more dimensional, the blades of engines for airplanes, ship propellers, ridges of hydroturbines, various models, metal blanks, stampings, cast and pressed parts perform.
Milling on the copier.
A self-made copier is used when drilling lock holes, under the bolts. They can make frames, grooves, channels of any size in plastic and metal profiles.
But the most interesting thing is that it is possible to mill curvilinear parts on it, copying them according to a pattern. The latter allow you to perform an exact copy and exclude the human factor in such complex works. Details have the exact, ideally identical form.
Identical parts are made using a template, all subsequent parts can be made on the model of the first. For the most accurate and accurate copying, a milling cutter is equipped with a copier, such a device is also called a pantograph.Back to table of contents
Principle of operation and device
In short, the principle of the copier is as follows: with the help of a probe, the outlines of the original of the copied object or template are outlined The probe is connected to the working plane, on the other end of which the mill is mounted, thus, all the movements of the probe are repeated by the mill head.
In machines there is a system of guides, an electric motor and a cartridge for clamping a milling cutter or a milling cutter. It describes a simple construction.
Standard construction consists of:
The right direction when working as a mill.
- working surface and bearing frame;
- milling working head;
- copy probe.
To make a do-it-yourself photocopier for a manual router, you will need:
- frame made of wood or metal, if based on a lathe, then such a machine;
- boards and slats, thick plywood, wooden bars;
- fasteners (bolts, nuts, screws);
- a set of wrenches, a hacksaw for cutting the required size of wooden parts;
- metal pipe guides;
- wood and metal drills;
- belt drive and electric motor (if not with manual, but with automatic drive).
The working plane is set in height, the head is equipped with an electric motor drive and a two-stage gear mechanism, it creates two speeds of the mill shaft. This is for more complex designs.
If there is a lathe and a hand mill, you can build a very good copying machine that will work on bulk workpieces. This will require a minimum of parts.
It is not so difficult to make a copier with your own hands.
As the main tool take a manual milling cutter. It is installed on the basis of thick plywood (12 mm), its parameters are 500/200 mm.
It makes a hole under the sole of the router and mounting bolts. Also made the frame and supports of the bars, it serves as an additional stabilization and fixation of the tool. Two smaller bars fix to the plywood plane at the edges. The router is mounted between these two bars with pins (bolts or nails) through holes in its sole and made in plywood.
The platform with its far end slides along the pipe along the structure, that is, it is attached to a bar that runs along it. You can take a pipe of metal 1 and ¾ inch. It is fixed between two cubic bars, it hangs, as it were, with a carriage and a milling cutter above the machine. In addition, it is folding. These bars are fastened with screws to the frame. The pipe is set as even as possible along the axis of the machine, it coincides with its axis. Two wooden cubes with holes corresponding to it are also mounted on it to ensure gliding. It is to them that such a carriage is attached.
On the front side of the machine frame there is also another bar attached, but already horizontal, with a profile template fixed on it. It is fixed to two pillars of wood vertically from its two sides. The upper part of it goes exactly along the axis of the machine. When a copier is not needed, it is removed, the router together with the carriage leans back. A vertical crossbar is fastened on the bottom of it in the middle; it slides along the grooves of the template, copying the relief. This is actually a copier, it is fastened with screws, in which case it can be removed and replaced or adjusted height. A template is fastened to the bar on the facade with self-tapping screws. Playground moves hands.
This machine is designed for simple three-dimensional parts such as chair legs, candlesticks, where there are no twisted elements.Back to table of contents
Briefly, the main stages of work
- Installation of metal pipe (guide).
- Production of the carriage in which the milling cutter is mounted.
- Installation of the probe of the copier, in fact it is a small vertical bar at the bottom of the carriage.
- Installation of horizontal bar for mounting the template.
Work begin like this. The milling cutter is inserted into the carriage, fastened there, connected to the power supply. On the facade of the machine, on the bar is fixed a template on which the probe slides. The milling cutter turns on, the carriage moves with hands, the working head exactly repeats the movements of the probe and cuts the same part on the workpiece.
By this principle, make more complex copying machines, which can be made, for example, 3 or more parts. In such cases, use the appropriate number of working heads.
The machine can be equipped with an electric motor with a belt drive. He will move the carriage with a router and copier. Some craftsmen connect the machine to the computer. On the Internet there is software for self-made structures of this type.
There are two-coordinate machines and three-coordinate machines, which allow working not only in planes, but also with volumetric details.