How to cut the glass? Knowing a number of rules, it is easy enough to master the techniques of cutting glass (see video) of various thickness and configuration.
Figure 1. Types of glass cutters.
To work you need to get the necessary tools:
- glass cutter;
- large metal ruler;
- rubber mallet;
- felt-tip pen;
- rubber-coated pliers;
- cotton gloves.
What glass cutter to choose?
The most common diamond cutters (see Fig. 1). Tiny diamonds, often artificial, are soldered into their working body. On the sides of the head there are grooves with which it is convenient to capture and remove very narrow fragments. Cut glass with a glass cutter with an artificial stone can usually be no thicker than 5 mm, and with a natural diamond - twice as thick.
Figure 2. Patterns of glass cutter movement.
Popular and roller tools. In their working body - from one to six rollers of heavy-duty tungsten-cobalt alloy. Each such roller can process up to 350 m sheets with a thickness up to 4 mm.
An oil cutter is similar to a roller tool. The difference between them is that he has grease coming to the cutting roller from the container in the handle. Thanks to her, friction is reduced and the life of the glass cutter increases. In addition, the lubricant absorbs glass dust and the tool moves more smoothly through the glass.
For cutting glass up to 10 mm thick, a Japanese glass cutter with a tungsten carbide roller is used. A glass cutter in the form of a compass can be cut into a sheet of circles with a diameter of 80 mm. In the workshops they use electric glass cutters with nichrome threads. When incandescent, they form hot lines, in which the sheet is divided into pieces of the required size.Back to table of contents
Preparation for work
Requirement number 1: it is necessary that the glass was completely clean. Cutting dusty glass is fraught with the fact that it will not crack by marking, and the glass cutter will wear out faster. It should be washed with a warm solution of baking soda and wiped dry.
Then you need to carefully inspect the entire sheet - are there any cracks, scratches, ridges? Because of them, the glass can break at all in the places where it was conceived. It should also be remembered that the angles of thick sheets are sometimes indirect, so you need to check them with a square. The glass should fit snugly against the table covered with a soft cloth. It is unacceptable that the edges of the sheet hung from it.Back to table of contents
How to work as a glass cutter
Figure 3. Diagram of cutting a circle from glass.
Previously it is better to make a marker mark the cut line. Experienced glaziers immediately pick up a glass cutter and a ruler.
Put it on the sheet, retreating 3-4 mm from the desired line when working with a diamond tool, and 1-2 mm when using a roller glass cutter. Hold it like a pencil: perpendicular to the sheet (see Fig. 2). The line is carried out easily and quickly, with one hand movement. The table at the same time should neither loose, nor vibrate.
With proper management of the diamond glass cutter, a slight crackle is heard, and a thin, barely noticeable scratch remains on the glass.
The roller glass cutter is lightly pressed, and the line turns out to be deeper, whitish.
After that, the sheet is moved to the edge of the table so that the cut line protrudes by 3-4 mm. Then, holding the glass with two hands, lightly but energetically move down the piece. If the line is drawn in compliance with all the rules, the glass of small thickness is separated almost by itself. Sheets thicker than 5 mm should be slightly tapped along the cut line from its lower side with a rim of a glass cutter or a rubber mallet. If the desired piece of glass is very narrow, it is broken off with pliers.
Typical mistakes of novice home craftsmen:
- too slow line holding glass cutter;
- excessive pressure on it, which forms a deep furrow with jagged edges;
- re-carrying them along the cut line for greater reliability;
- weakening the pressure on the glass cutter a few millimeters to the edge of the glass.
Figured sheet cutting
Figure 4. Curved glass cutting is carried out using a template made of plywood or thick paper.
To cut the necessary ovals or circles in it (see Fig. 3), glass cutters are used in the form of compasses, but an oil cutter with a suction cup can also be dispensed with. It firmly fixes the tool on the sheet, and with the help of an adjustable scale set the desired radius.
If you want to get a round glass, also attach a suction cup to the sheet. Then a small nail is driven into the narrow rail, its tip should protrude by 4-5 mm. This point is pressed into the suction cup, and a glass cutter is attached to the opposite end of the rail. Rotating it, describe the circle. Then, going from it to the edge of the glass, make radial cuts. After that, lightly tapping on the bottom of the incision lines, alternately remove the segments.
Curvilinear glass cutting (see fig. 4) is carried out according to a pattern made of plywood or thick cardboard. Pressing it tightly to the sheet, draw a cutting line in continuous motion. Then, every 70–140 mm, by hand, make cuts to the edges of the sheet, perpendicular to the radii of the curved line. And, tapping on all the lines below, break off unnecessary pieces.
Finally, you can even cut the glass without a glass cutter. On the edge of the sheet with a file, make a shallow notch. Then, applying a heated soldering iron to it, slowly draw a line along the ruler or template. A crack is formed, and a piece of a given shape is easily separated along it.
The final operation is processing the edges and edges of the cut glass. All notches, irregularities need to be removed with an emery stick or file, which should be moistened periodically with turpentine or kerosene. You can grind and polish the edges of the glass with a drill, putting a grinding wheel with fine-grained sandpaper on it.