Such a procedure as laser metal-cutting with their own hands, which appeared quite recently, immediately became the most progressive and effective in creating high-quality metal elements. This procedure is carried out using a high-power laser, which by focusing the beam on one point can cut any material, ranging from wood to metal. During the laser action, an oxidizing agent is formed on the metal surface, which increases the energy absorption and brings it to the melting temperature. In the place where the laser is in contact with the metal, melting begins, while the rest of the material does not tolerate any changes, but only heats up.
Laser cutting technology.
In order for cutting to be carried out much faster, an active gas is supplied to the metal surface, most often oxygen, which significantly accelerates the melting process and can blow off all residues after it. When gas is blown out, the metal begins to exfoliate, giving way to the laser to the next layer. The process ends when the entire thickness of the metal is cut. At the same time, the flow of oxygen is able to quickly cool the molten metal, creating a kind of seam around the cut line. A small laser impact zone can make a slot in a metal with a thickness of 0.2 mm, which is significantly less than other existing cutting methods.
The big plus of this process is the possibility of its full automation. You can program the process and entrust it to a computer program, as a result of which the product is obtained as accurate as possible. In most cases, solid-state lasers or gas lasers are used. It is worth noting that laser cutting can make a perfectly flat and smooth cut, which is almost impossible to obtain with mechanical cutting. It is much faster and better able to do the work, without leaving behind the products of processing.
The main advantages of laser metal cutting do-it-yourself
Diagram of the laser cutting process.
The presence of significant advantages made the laser cutting force the most popular and sought after among all the other methods. Laser cutting of the metal by its appearance has enabled many enterprises to create better-quality metal objects and objects, increasing their productivity. Recommended metals for this type of cutting are non-ferrous, steel and aluminum alloys.
With the help of the cutting power of this equipment, it is possible to perform previously impossible procedures, for example, processing thickened sheets, cutting thick alloys, and create parts of complex shape. In addition, laser cutting makes it possible to cut and process superhard metals. If you look at this process from the other side, the non-contact method can significantly increase the productivity of the process of cutting fragile products, which often require high precision.
To perform cutting with a computer, you only need to download the working project and run it. After its implementation, you will not need to do additional processing, the laser cutting capabilities of the metal provide for this factor. A very important advantage for enterprises engaged in the production of metal products is that a small batch no longer requires the creation of a mold, which was quite expensive and its manufacture took a substantial period of time. In addition, the manufacture of parts is not limited to cutting in the plane, it is possible to cut the metal in bulk. If we compare the execution time of a single product and the capabilities of the equipment, the preference today is given to laser cutting.Back to table of contents
Laser cutting of metal and its application
Diagram of the design of a solid-state laser.
The laser can be used not only to simply cut the layers of metal structures, but also to perform high-precision engraving. Very often it is used for the manufacture of small batches of parts or products.
Usually, in order to make a small order, a low-power laser is used, which has sufficiently compact dimensions. If it is necessary to carry out the production of a large batch of products, more modern and powerful lasers are used. They include a high-power laser, a coordinate table, and computer equipment on which special software is installed that can support vector graphics files.
The error of such equipment is extremely small, it can carry out work with a spacing of 0.001 mm. As a rule, its use is due to the need to create complex metal products and perform cutting along a complex contour. Laser cutting of metal greatly facilitates the work of craftsmen and makes each product more accessible due to the short lead times. In addition, the cutting laser can work not only with metal, but also with wood, stainless steel, aluminum and even plastic products.Back to table of contents
Laser cutting machine
Gas laser with transverse gas flow.
Equipment for this type of work is a standard design, which includes:
- Desktop for the object cut.
- Movable laser head that can move in space.
In order to ensure high precision manufacturing, the head is equipped with special drives that can move it in perpendicular planes. To ensure high accuracy of metal trimming, the device is equipped with focusing optics, which can direct the beam to a single point. This focus can be adjusted and allows you to create cuts with a thickness of tenths of a millimeter. In addition, in the manufacture of extremely heavy and small parts, a computer is usually used, which can perform this work with high accuracy.
This program itself can turn the laser head in the desired direction and adjust the laser output power depending on the requirements. In order for the program to know the exact data, a special drawing is needed that contains all the outlines and contours of the product. A very important element is gas blowing. It is used not only to stratify the metal, but also for additional processing. It can immediately cool the metal and create a smooth and smooth seam. In addition, you no longer have to remove residual products yourself, all this is automatically done by blowing gas.
To operate this equipment does not require high energy costs, fast carving and the execution of products can significantly increase productivity. One of the important factors when working on a laser cutting machine is that it does not require consumables to work. In order to increase the cutting speed, its power should be adjusted, which can vary from fairly small values to strong radiation. As a rule, the cost of such work depends on what thickness and type of metal you will process. Accordingly, the thicker and harder the metal, the more expensive such work will cost.Back to table of contents
The purpose of laser equipment
There are several parameters that can characterize equipment for laser cutting, among them:
- Radiation intensity.
- The type of material that is being laser cut.
- Pressure and gas composition.
The machine has already established itself for the manufacture of metal products, decorative elements that can be used in the interior of houses or apartments, as well as for working with plastic objects and soft metals.
If the machine is properly operated, it can pay for itself in the shortest time possible and bring its owner a huge amount of profit.
Products manufactured with the help of this machine are of high quality, profitability and accuracy of performance.
Everyone with the help of laser cutting with their own hands can create an interesting and rather complicated object that will harmoniously complement the interior of the home. Laser cutting of metal is becoming an innovative and progressive method for cutting and processing materials and is gaining popularity every day. Objects produced in this way will not have microcracks and deformations.