The need for treated wood today, despite the many very different materials, is not decreasing and is unlikely to decrease in the coming years. Therefore, the presence of sawmills for large and small workshops currently plays a very important role.
The sawmill is an indispensable tool in the processing of wood and the construction of this material.
But not all and not always can buy a similar machine, produced at the factory. And what to do if you need to have on hand a sufficient number of boards or cant? In fact, there is a solution. This is a band sawmill with his own hands.
This option is quite real, as the manufacture of the specified equipment, although it requires a certain skill and experience, is not too difficult. The main thing in this case - to get some knowledge.
Thus, it is necessary now to find out how and how one of the simplest types of cutting machines is created - a band sawmill.
Materials, tools and equipment needed to assemble the sawmill
Drawing of a band saw with dimensions.
Making home-made cutting tools will require components such as:
- pulleys (diameter - not less than 30 cm);
- half inch pipes;
- metal corner (size 50 mm);
- profile tube (size 25x25 mm);
A high-quality band sawmill can be made using tools and equipment such as:
- welding machine;
- milling machine;
- electric drill;
- "Bulgarian" with a set of cutting discs;
- set of screwdrivers;
- set of wrenches;
- instrumentation (ruler, angle, measuring tape);
- fasteners (bolts, nuts, screws, washers).
The principle of operation of the sawmill
The scheme of the band saw.
In order to properly assemble the device we are considering and eventually get a high-quality woodworking machine, it is useful to learn the basic technological principle, on the basis of which practically all belt saws operate.
It can be described very briefly. A log (or any woody semi-finished product) that is to be sawn is laid on a working platform and fixed. Like the base itself, the wooden workpiece remains motionless throughout the entire sawing cycle on boards or bars. On both sides of the rails and special guides along the log, a mobile structure moves with a cutting unit mounted on it, which cuts the workpiece into specified dimensional lumber.
Direct cutting is done with a saw band, which circulates under tension between two pulleys mounted on a movable frame.
The configuration and dimensions of the boards or bars are initially set by the operator of the sawmill. An even straight cutting line is ensured by a sufficiently large tension force of the saw belt between the driving and driven pulleys.
A full cycle of sawing raw blanks includes 3 cycles:
- Pre-processing of blanks for cutting. The logs prepared for this are sorted by size. To fit the parameters, they are cut with a chainsaw or a hacksaw.
- Direct sawing wood material. The operator of the sawmill is setting up equipment. After that, sawing is performed according to a predetermined pattern.
- Finishing processing of the received timber. After the work of the sawmill on the boards or bars, small errors may remain. In this case, the machine does not apply, minor defects are manually eliminated by the operator.
Sawmill: components and parts
The principle of operation of the band saw.
The equipment considered in this case functions according to the block diagram. This principle allows you to increase the design of additional or improved components and accessories.
The construction of the sawmill consists of such basic elements as:
- frame with guides (2 pcs.) to move the sawing tape;
- rail pair to move the saw carriage;
- the screw lifting mechanism moving a tape;
- spring (hydraulic) band tension unit;
- 2 pulleys, leading and driven;
- casing for fencing pulleys;
- tape retainer;
- V-belt transmission;
- Electrical engine;
- system of eccentric clips for the processed log;
- tank for coolant.
Sawmill tape their own hands: the order of manufacture
The manufacture of the machine begins with the creation of the frame of the sawmill. It is made of two channels with a length of 8 m and a height of more than 14 cm. If there are no channels, you can take two rails under the frame (and the soles should be on top) or metal corners 50x100 mm in size.
Along the length of the channels, holes are drilled at a distance of 1-1.5 m from each other. After that, the channel bars are strung together by 25-cm long pipe sections. The pipes and channels are fastened using threaded rods or bolts of appropriate sizes.
Drawing homemade sawmill.
The guide assembly assembled in this way is mounted on racks. The racks themselves are also made by welding or screw assembling from channels (if they are not available, from angles or pipes). The number of specified structural elements depends on the length of the assembled bed. For example, for an 8-meter frame, approximately 4 stands will be required. When mounting them, it is necessary to ensure that the outermost ones are at a distance of 80-100 cm from the extremities of the guides. In addition, the construction of the bed should be made sufficiently rigid, for which it is equipped with braces.
After that, proceed to the assembly of mobile carts. Usually the material for its manufacture is a steel plate 46 mm thick. The dimensions of the metal blank for the trolley must be selected so that the result is a movable assembly about 60 cm long. The width of the movable structure depends on the width of the bed and must be such that the edges of the trolley protrude beyond the channels of approximately 8 cm on each side.
Then you should think about the method of movement along the bed of the mobile cart with a motor mounted on it and a circular saw. The direction and speed of movement are set by a special steering wheel, which is installed from the side of the power plant body. The steering wheel is connected to the hub of one of the stars located on the sides of the rails.
The scheme of adjustment of the sawmill.
A metal chain is used to move the whole structure. In order to avoid a free wheel movement at the helm, the chain must be tightened in accordance with the technical requirements.
In order to ensure the high quality of the sawn timber, as well as to create operator-friendly conditions for sawing wood, the sawmill should be equipped with a special device for fixing the log in a stationary state. For such a device are well suited metal pipes having an internal diameter of approximately 35-40 mm.
Movable rods are inserted inside the specified pipes, and special clamps made of a metal angle of 40x40 mm and clamping jaw mechanisms are installed over the pipes. It should be borne in mind that for reliable fixation of the processed logs the length of the clamping elements can not be less than 15 mm.
Finally, it was the turn to select the main components of any sawmill - the saw and the electric motor. Meanwhile, experienced workers are advised to do this at the very beginning of the manufacturing process of the cutting machine. The fact is that the dimensions of the entire saw system depend on the technical parameters of these components as a whole.
Since the power unit and the saw can only be purchased ready-made and with certain technical characteristics, then when buying in a store you should pay attention to 10 kW electric motors and saws with a diameter of 1 m. Such parameters are capable of ensuring maximum efficiency of the future machine. If the motor and the saw with these characteristics could not be found, then the frame must be made several smaller sizes.Back to table of contents
Important points during assembly
Connection diagram of electric sawmill.
Sawmill, dealing with logs, whose weight can reach 300-350 kg, should be made massive and very stable.
The impressive weight of the machine forces to assemble it directly on the very place where it will work later.
When taking on the assembly of a band saw, it should be borne in mind that due to the rather large complexity of setting up a home-made sawing machine, it will have to be done almost constantly.
Significant disadvantages of band sawmills include a relatively high percentage of waste when cutting wood. This is, in particular, due to the increased width of the working cut.
In addition, power-saw benches, assembled in the “artisanal” way, are usually characterized by a rather large scatter of sawdust, which makes it necessary to additionally organize special receivers for chips.
In that case, if the master who wants to save on the purchase of a factory sawmill and decided to manufacture his own sawing device, takes into account all the installation recommendations and warnings regarding the correct operation of the machine, so useful in everyday work, he will receive an excellent assistant for himself. Whatever and whoever says, but with the help of such equipment you can make a lot of useful and high-quality products and designs.