Criteria for the classification of cutting tools

Equipment for cutting metal, which is required when performing various construction and repair work, in industry and in life can be very diverse. Classification of cutting tools is mainly based on what purpose these or other types of tools perform.

Graph of choosing the best way to cut metal

Graph of choosing the best way to cut metal.

The variety of cutting equipment allows you to use the most suitable for each specific purpose. The choice of tool depends on the features of the work and the desired result, as well as on the characteristics of the metal being processed.

Design features of cutting tools

The classification of cutting tools can be made according to various criteria. The main thing is the design of the equipment. Depending on the design, the following types of equipment can be distinguished:

  • cutters;
  • incisors;
  • countersinks;
  • drill;
  • counter balances;
  • sweep;
  • taps;
  • dies;
  • hacksaw blades;
  • shavers;
  • abrasive tool.
Cutter design

Cutter design.

Each of the listed types possesses some characteristic construction features, which determine the belonging to one or another type of cutting tool. So, single-blade tools are incisors. They provide the ability to process metal using a multi-directional feed movement.

Metal processing with cutters implies rotational movements of the tool along a path with a fixed radius. In this case, the direction of feed movement does not coincide with the direction of the tool axis.

Drills are axial cutting equipment. They are used in cases where you want to make a hole in the material to be processed or to increase the already finished holes. When machining the drill, they perform rotational motions, which are supplemented with feed motions to get the desired result. The axis of rotation and the direction of movement of the feed coincide.

Countersinks also refer to axial tools. They allow you to adjust the shape and size of the holes in the metal, in addition, they can be used to make the diameter of the hole larger. For machining holes can be used and sweep. This type of equipment is designed to remove roughness from the walls of the holes. This process is called finishing. End and cylindrical sections are machined with an axial tool, such as tsekovki.

The design of end milling cutters

The design of end milling cutters.

For the manufacture of external threads on cylindrical metal billets are used dies. Threaded in the inner part of the holes can be taps.

Knife blades are multi-blade tools. In shape, they are metal strips on which numerous teeth are made of the same height. They are used if you need to cut a piece of the workpiece or make grooves in it. Progressive movements in this case are the main workers.

The rams are used to grind teeth on various parts. For example, on gears, shafts, etc. Gears can also be machined with shavers. The action of these tools is reminiscent of scraping. As a result, finishing of the parts is performed

The group of abrasive tools includes various devices and materials for finishing of details. These can be special powders, grains, bars, crystals, and so on.

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Types of machined surfaces

In addition to the design features, the classification of equipment for cutting metals can be performed by other criteria. For example, depending on the type of surface for processing of which the equipment is intended. According to this criterion, the following varieties can be distinguished:

Drill design

The design of the drill.

  1. Products used to work with the bodies of rotation of flat and outer shaped surfaces. This group of equipment includes cutters, abrasive wheels, cutters and similar tools.
  2. Equipment that allows the processing of holes. This group includes drills, broaches, boring cutters, countersinks.
  3. The devices allowing to cut a carving. For similar products include rolling rollers, taps, dies.
  4. Products that allow the processing of parts, the main element of which are the teeth, that is, splined shafts, sprockets and other things. For this purpose, shevera, grinding wheels, dolbyaki, grinding tools, disk cutters are used.
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Other classification criteria

In addition, cutting equipment can be classified according to how it interacts with the metal being processed. Given this criterion, we distinguish between tools:

  • ordinary;
  • rotary (with a continuously updated circular blade).

Should be taken into account and such criteria as the type of manufacture. Depending on it, there are products of the following types:

  • whole;
  • compound;
  • prefabricated.

Prefabricated differ from composite type of compound elements. In the first case, the connection is detachable, in the second - one-piece.

Depending on the method of attachment to the machine, they can be:

  • prismatic;
  • tail;
  • mounted

It is worth noting the classification by the criterion associated with the method of application. Tools can be manual, automatic or combined.

Thus, it is possible to classify devices for cutting metal in various ways, depending on which criterion is taken into account.

The classification criteria are diverse: they take into account the design, the method of making and using the tools, the way they interact with the surfaces to be treated, and so on.

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