In the house appeared such a necessary tool, like a drill.
The drill is used for drilling various types of materials, therefore it is necessary to change drills very often.
The first holes are drilled, and the drill has to be changed. How to pull the drill out of the drill with your own hands correctly?
Drill chuck design
The design of the drill chuck.
In all types of drills, the drill is installed in a special chuck. With this tool, the drill is mounted on a rotating shaft, and the rotational movement necessary for drilling is transmitted to it. In this type of drill, as a punch, it also provides the translational (shock) movement of the drill. Almost all drills use cam-type mechanisms.
Cam chuck consists of a hollow body in the form of a cylinder, which moves the adjusting sleeve or ring. Cams with a tapered cut are mounted inside the body, which move along guides, which ensure the translational movement of the cams during rotation of the adjusting element. Due to the taper of the cams when moving up evenly converge relative to each other or evenly diverge when moving down.Back to table of contents
Drill bit in drill
Diagram of the device drill.
To install the cartridge on the shaft of the drill in its lower part, an opening is made along the shaft diameter. The fastening can be due to a threaded connection or holes with a taper and a tight fit of the cartridge on a shaft having a reverse taper.
The drill is inserted in the center into the space between the cams. When the cams descend (clockwise rotation of the adjusting element), the auger is fixed in the chuck, and when the cams diverge, on the contrary, it is released. In order to ensure reliable fastening, it is necessary to exert considerable force during the rotation of the adjusting element.
According to the method of fastening the drill chucks are divided into conventional (key) and quick-clamping. In the key adjusting ring is moved and tightened with a special key. When the key is rotated clockwise, the drill is fixed in the chuck. In the fast-clamping installed adjustment sleeve, the surface of which has a grooved for easy rotation by hand. By manually turning the sleeve clockwise, the drill is fixed in the chuck.
Keyless chucks are of two types: with one sleeve and with two sleeves. If the design provides only one sleeve, then it rotates relative to the body of the drill, which must be fixed motionless during installation. When using two sleeves, one of them is movable, adjusting, and the other is fixed. Rotation of the adjusting sleeve is relative to the second sleeve, which must be fixed when installing the drill. In the design of the cartridge, to limit the force of tightening, additional elements can be used in the form of a ratchet (located inside) or a locking spring mechanism with a button (the button goes into a special socket on the outside).Back to table of contents
The reasons for the difficulty of extracting the drill
Types of drills: a - spiral centerless; b - spiral with center and undercutters; in - spiral with the screw center; d - feather centering; d - centering; e - gimlet; W - razzenkovka; h - grooving; and - cork.
In the process of working with a drill sometimes there are difficulties when replacing the drill, associated with the extraction of previously used drill from the cartridge. This problem can be of varying degrees of difficulty, depending on the cause of the occurrence. The simplest and most common reason is the application of excessive force when clamping the drill, in the absence of restrictive mechanisms in the cartridge design. This phenomenon most often occurs when used to tighten the drill in the final stage of the impact method, for example, using a mallet. A drill may be jammed even if its force tightening is performed when it is incorrectly placed in the space between the cams. This is typical when using a small-diameter drill.
A more complex tool jamming mechanism may occur when using a low-quality drill. So, if it is made of a soft material, then when it is rotated, metal shavings may occur, taken from the surface, which clogs the gap between the cams and the drill, as well as between the cams. This may make it difficult for the cam to be diluted when attempting to loosen the auger. Difficulties in the removal may occur if the drill during operation sank too deep into the cartridge. The task is complicated if the drill, in addition to such jamming, also broke at the level of the upper end of the cartridge.
The cause of breakage of the drill in the drill chuck may be a violation of the drilling mode.
The reason for the destruction, in addition to the use of poor-quality material, can be a violation of the drilling mode: an unexpected tilt of the drill, excessive vertical load, an attempt to drill a heavy-duty material, etc.
Finally, the reason for removing the drill fails is the jamming of the cartridge itself. There are several possible reasons. The first reason, which is not related to the failure of the cartridge, is due to the ingress of foreign particles that prevent movement in the area of the threaded connection of the regulating element and the housing. Such particles can be dirt, metal dust or small chips, etc. In this case, it is not possible to ensure the rotation of the adjusting sleeve or key.
The reason that you can not get a drill can be a failure of the cartridge. This can be caused by the presence of a factory defect, or temporary wear of the cams or a regulating element. The reason may be the failure of the spring blocking mechanism, which does not release the regulating element when the button is pressed.Back to table of contents
Easy drill removal
In order to remove the drill from the chuck, it is necessary to rotate the adjusting sleeve.
In normal mode, the issue of extraction is solved very simply. By turning the adjusting sleeve or key counterclockwise, the cams are retracted, after which the drill is removed. In the presence of a locking mechanism, rotation begins with pressing the locking button. When the regulating element is rotated, the drill case is fixed by hand (the cartridge with one sleeve) or the fixed sleeve (cartridge with two sleeves).
If you can not immediately turn the sleeve or key, then you need to try to increase the load or create a strong initial impulse load. The first attempt is to set the movement with a sharp jerk of the right hand, while ensuring the fixation of the drill with the left hand. The next attempt is a light blow to the key vertically or a palm strike to the sleeve in the tangent direction to the surface of the sleeve. If the manual method of action did not help pull out the drill, then you should resort to using a mallet or a light hammer (better than a rubber). This tool strikes the key or sleeve. The impact force increases as needed. To increase the force effect, it is advisable to introduce a lubricant (oil) into the cam area before striking.Back to table of contents
In cases where the drill is jammed strongly, we can recommend the use of a vice. To extract it, you must perform the following operations:
Another way to remove the drill from the drill is to use a vice.
- In the vice, the jammed drill is firmly clamped so that the drill itself is parallel to the table.
- With a small hammer, knock lightly over the entire surface of the cartridge.
- Then light but sharp blows are made with a hammer on the sleeve vertically tangentially to its surface.
- If the movement has begun, the strikes should be continued until the drill shank emerges from the end.
- If the movement does not occur, then you should strengthen the blows. It is necessary to ensure that the surface is not damaged.
The effectiveness of the method can be increased by using a gas key. It can be used only in the case of a metal cartridge - it is simply not possible to clamp the plastic securely. The gas key tightly clamped sleeve. By turning the gas key counterclockwise, the sleeve is rotated relative to the drill, mounted in a vice.
You can further enhance the impact when using two gas switches. In this case, the second gas key is fixed shaft drill or fixed sleeve (in the case of a cartridge with two sleeves). The counterclockwise rotation is made with a gas wrench fixed on the adjusting sleeve of the cartridge; while the second key must be fixed. Thus, the case should be rotated relative to the drill and drill at the same time.Back to table of contents
Removing the chuck due to jamming drill
If the drill is jammed due to the fault of the chuck, then it must be removed from the drill shaft. The fastening element on the shaft of the drill is of two types: threaded and tapered. When threaded fastening element is fixed in a vice, and the drill rotates counterclockwise relative to it. If there is a locking screw, it is turned away with a screwdriver or a gas wrench.
With a tapered mount, the cartridge is mounted on the shaft “under pressure”.
You can remove it by lightly tapping the hammer on the bottom.
Before this, the locking screw is loosened.
After removing it from the drill shaft, you can make the last attempt to extract the drill. To do this, all the internal elements (cams), together with the auger, are knocked out of the body by light strikes at the upper ends of the cams.
The tool that is needed to pull the drill:
- gas key;
- rubber mallet.
Sticking the drill inside the drill can cause some difficulties when removing it. However, small efforts and knowledge of the cartridge design will help to cope with this problem.