What is the difference between perforator and impact drill

When performing construction work, two tools are often used - a hammer drill and a perforator. They are considered similar, but at the same time they should be distinguished, as there are differences, and there are many of them. Therefore, it is necessary to determine what the differences are from the punch, what are their features and operating principles.

Punch device

Punch device.

The structure of the percussion mechanism

The main difference that is observed in both instruments lies in the main function.. If the puncher performs chiselling of surfaces, then at the drill the application is reduced to drilling. However, these are not the only differences, since it is necessary to understand the design features of both mechanisms.

We need to start with a percussion mechanism. At the perforator, it is represented by a complex assembly, which can be represented by two versions - electropneumatic and electromechanical. The most common is the first type, which allows you to provide a tool with good technical characteristics.

Driving mechanism of perforator punch

Scheme percussion mechanism punch.

The principle of the device is as follows. The rotation of the electric motor is converted into a movement that causes the piston to reciprocate. The movement of the electric motor is transformed by means of a crank mechanism.

As a result of the action of compression, which is present in the region between the ram and the piston, the first element accelerates. With the help of a drummer, a ram transmits energy to the working part, which can be represented by a drill, chisel, drill and other elements.

As for the impact drill, the principle of its operation looks simpler than in the previously described version. The mechanism is represented by two ratchets, each attached to its site. One of them is to the device case, and the second is to the rotating cartridge.

If the blow function is in the off position, the ratchets do not contact each other, which is due to the presence of a stopper between them. The stopper is removed when the drill is switched to the impact mode, as a result of pressing the device on the work surface, contact occurs between the two elements. Axial reciprocating movement at the same time is transferred to the drill and chuck.

Thus, such differences determine the significant difference between the two devices. In turn, this affects not only the scope of the impact drill and punch, but also their technical characteristics.

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Performance and functionality

Diagram of the device of the impact drill

Diagram of the device of the impact drill.

Another aspect of the comparison that should be addressed is the use of devices. The current drills have three modes of work. The first is represented by the work in which the blow occurs without rotation, like a jackhammer.

The second option involves the rotation of the working part, but without a blow. And the last mode combines both actions - rotation and impact. For this reason, the hammer drill can be used both for drilling and for spalling, gouging stitches or niches.

As for the impact drill, it has only two modes - drilling without a blow or with a blow. For this reason, the use of the device involves the use during the process of drilling holes, which is the axial purpose of the device.

Now you need to affect the performance of the tools. In this regard, the punch wins, especially when working with stone surfaces. The reason for this is the high impact energy, which is higher in the first instrument than in the second. At the drill similar energy is small. It depends on the degree of pressing the tool to the material being processed.


When drilling concrete, the perforator is far superior to the impact drill, since during operation, the perforator mechanism is able to create a powerful blow without recoil.

However, in this case, the impact energy remains small, which is associated with a small amplitude of movement of the drill. It is equal to the height of the ratchet tooth. More important is the weight of the tool, which leads to an increase in productivity.

For example, the weight of the punch will be greater than the weight of the impact drill, even if it has the same power. This is especially noticeable during operation, as the diameter of the hole when using a punch exceeds the diameter of the hole made with a drill. This difference increases even more if a crown is used with the first device.

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Tool holder

The difference between a percussion drill and a perforator lies in the method of fastening the tools used. For the first mechanism there is a large number of nozzles, which increases the functionality of the device. At the same time, there is a drill with a hard-facing build-up for the impact drill.

Fastening drill and drill in both mechanisms occurs in the cartridges. However, the design of this element in both devices has a number of differences. To produce a quick tool change, a special clamping system is used in the punch.

Diagram of the percussion mechanism of the drill

Diagram of the percussion mechanism of the drill.

At this time, the fixation of the drill in the chuck occurs using grooves having a special shape. In addition, the tool used in the punch, has a certain degree of freedom in terms of its relationship to the cartridge. This helps reduce the strain on the tool during impact.

To use a conventional drill, you must use an adapter or change the cartridge to a cam type. In some models, this process occurs quickly, due to the presence of a special fastening system. If an adapter is used, the construction is represented by the combination of two cartridges. But this connection has one drawback, which lies in the beating of the drill during rotation and a slight rigidity of the fastening.

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Some other points

It is necessary to disassemble and such an indicator as the durability of the use of both devices and whether this parameter is very different for each of them. In this regard, a punch is more durable, if it is used with a blow function. This is due to the pneumatics of the apparatus, which creates a more benign working environment by reducing vibration.

The device has a protection coupling, the purpose of which is to protect the mechanism from abnormal situations, such as penetration of an armature into the device, which may cause jamming.

Hammer drill

Using a hammer drill, you can drill holes in wood, metal, plastic, brick, and so on.

As for the drill, its ratchets are subject to greater load, which causes rapid wear. Negative effect and strong vibration, which leads to wear of the basic mechanisms of the device. As a result, the drill fails faster than the hammer drill. However, the cost of the last device is much higher than the price of the drill. This is observed in those situations when both devices have the same power.

Regarding the question of what is better - a drill or a puncher, it is impossible to give a definite assessment. The acquisition of one of the devices depends on the goals that face the person who has thought about buying. However, it is worth remembering that both mechanisms have differences between themselves, as was mentioned earlier.

So the impact drill is not designed to perform large volumes of work. The use of this device is advisable if the need for work occurs occasionally, and then if you need to make several holes. If it is necessary to make cavities or a large amount of work is planned, then nothing would be better than a perforator.

Thus, the two described devices have significant differences. This applies to the design features of both products, and the purpose of the devices.

In addition, the punch is a more functional device than a drill, it is worth remembering this when choosing a unit.

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