Modern set of repair and construction equipment is very difficult to imagine without a punch. Its main function is to punch holes in building materials such as brick, concrete and stone. This power tool is almost always operated in harsh environments with heavy dust and heavy loads. Therefore, sometimes even the highest quality models fail, not to mention the cheap Chinese fakes. If suddenly your punch has broken, you should not be upset, because in most cases you can fix the problem yourself.
Figure 1. Diagram of the device punch.
The device and the principle of operation of the punch
To understand how to fix a punch in the event of a breakdown, you need to know its structure and how it works. This tool can work at once in 3 directions:
- drill through various holes in concrete and brick, like a drill;
- chisel grooves in soft plaster, like a jackhammer;
- screw in screws as a screwdriver.
Different models of perforators can differ among themselves by some design features and additional functions. However, despite all the differences, such products have the same components and systems, allowing the punch to perform their main function. These nodes include (Fig. 1):
- Electrical engine;
- impact mechanism.
Figure 2. Diagram of a pneumatic percussion mechanism.
There are also additional components that simplify the operation of the punch. These include: an anti-vibration system, a mechanism for fixing a tool in a certain position, a device for switching various modes of operation, a system for limiting the depth of drilling, etc.
One of the main elements of the perforator is a percussion mechanism, which can be of the electromagnetic or pneumatic type. In the first case, the operation of the percussion mechanism is controlled by 2 electromagnetic coils, which create reciprocating motions of the core, and the core transmits these impacts to the end part of the tool. In the second case, the operation of the mechanism is ensured by the movement of the piston in the cylinder. It is this type of percussion mechanism that is most widely used.
The device of the pneumatic percussion mechanism is shown in fig. 2, where: 1 - swinging bearing, 2 - piston, 3 - ram, 4 - drummer, 5 - gear. When the tool is turned on, the torque from the electric motor is transmitted to the swinging bearing, which, converting the rotational motion into oscillatory, transfers it to the piston. Due to the pressure drop between the ram and the piston, the first one begins to move, putting the buoy into operation. The buoy strikes the work item installed in the chuck. According to this principle, the conversion of electrical energy into shock.Back to table of contents
The main causes of breakage punch
The main difference between the punch and many other construction power tools is to work in strong dust. Its engine is cooled by a fan. In the cooling air there are a lot of dust particles, which, penetrating into the tool, rub against the armature and the stator, which leads to their rapid wear. To extend the life of these elements, it is necessary to periodically clean them from dust.
Figure 3. Stator circuit.
Another frequent tool breakage is associated with the mechanism for switching modes of operation (rotation, combat, rotation with combat). Therefore, if your perforator does not turn on, for example, the rotation mode, then you should disassemble the tool and visually check the switching mechanism.
Quite often, breakage punch associated with the chuck, because when it is exposed to a strong load. You can protect your equipment from such a breakdown by periodically cleaning the cartridge from dust and dirt with a cloth soaked in gasoline.Back to table of contents
Disassembly of the punch with their own hands
Eliminating virtually any malfunction in the punch requires disassembling it.. Therefore, it is very important to know how to do it correctly. The punch disassembly sequence is as follows:
- the rubber tip, ring spring, casing of the fixation coupling of the drill is removed;
- the fixing ball is removed;
- the knob of the switch is dismantled, for which it is necessary to turn the mode switch to the extreme position, and then press the lock button on it;
- the back pad on the handle is dismantled, engine brushes are removed;
- 4 screws are unscrewed from the side of the drill and the tool body is removed;
- the rotor of the electric motor is removed, 2 screws are unscrewed, with the help of which the stator is fixed, after which the stator is dismantled (Fig. 3).
After replacing a damaged item, assembly is performed in the reverse order.Back to table of contents
Repair punch do it yourself
The main knots punch.
To repair the punch you may need the following tools and materials:
- set of wrenches;
- insulating tape;
If you are more or less versed in the design of the perforator, then this will allow you to quickly find the damage and fix it with minimal financial investments. Usually, the repair of this tool is reduced to the replacement of the failed part:
- power cable;
It should be noted that it is much easier to repair a household-level punch than a professional one. But the failure of more serious equipment are quite complicated, so that it is better to entrust their removal to specialists.
Sometimes it happens that when the perforator is turned on, the electric motor does not start. Usually the cause of such a breakdown is damage to the power cord. Often it bends at the point of its entrance into the tool body.
To eliminate this malfunction, it is necessary to disassemble the perforator and the tester to ring out 2 wires of the cable. If a break is found in any place, the power cord must be replaced with a new one. It is recommended not to do the twists, as there is a high probability that the cable in this place will break again in a while.
If during operation the motor does not develop full revolutions or during operation there is a crackling sound and a burning smell, then this may be due to the wear of the brushes. In this case, the brushes should be replaced. To do this, you need to disassemble the punch, take out the worn brushes, and install new ones in their place. Another reason for the strong sparking of brushes can be a breakdown of the stator or rotor windings. In this case, the failed parts should also be replaced.Back to table of contents
How to extend the life of the punch?
The service life of this tool largely depends on the accuracy and timeliness of its maintenance, proper preparation for work, and also on compliance with all rules for storage and operation.
Before turning on the punch, you need to check the reliability of fastening of all the case elements, insulation of the plug and the power cable.
When operating the equipment, you should pay attention to third-party noise, the smell of burning and strong vibrations. When they appear, you should immediately carry out maintenance, to identify and eliminate the fault.
Continuous operation of the punch should not be more than 15 minutes, after which you should take a break for at least 5 minutes. Before replacing the work item (drill, drill bit, chisel), be sure to lubricate the tail. It is allowed to change the operation modes of the perforator with the corresponding switch only after a complete stop of the electric motor.
Compliance with all recommendations for the use of perforator will save it from failure, and you - from a headache.