Types of modern drills and their features

Virtually all construction projects and major repairs need to be drilled in stone walls and create assembly recesses in concrete floors. For these purposes, a remarkable device has been created - a perforator, which is widely used by both professional builders and private traders who prefer to make repairs in their own homes.

Punch for home

Punch, compared with the drill has a large engine power and hence the impact force.

In the modern construction industry, various types of perforators are used, which make it possible to carry out operations quite easily and effectively, which until relatively recently brought many problems and inconveniences to builders.

But before you pick up the first machine, you should understand its properties and capabilities, as well as its difference from the impact drill.

Functional purpose of the punch

Elements of the perforator

Diagram of the elements of the perforator.

This power tool is the development of a line of accessories for drilling.

Today it is perhaps the most perfect and efficient device.

It is quick and easy to drill holes in highly durable materials (brick, concrete, natural stone) and the device allows a combination of percussion and rotational movements of the working tip to perform the functions of a jackhammer.

When using various nozzles, punchers can perform such operations as:

  • drilling holes in various hardness surfaces;
  • overlap drilling;
  • production of chips in the ceiling;
  • beating work;
  • tamping operations;
  • use as a screwdriver;
  • driving various rods.
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Features of the punch, its difference from the impact drill

One-handed puncher

Scheme one-handed punch.

As already mentioned, the principle of operation, based on the combination of the shock-rotational movements of the drill, is the same for any perforator, but the designs of different tools may differ significantly from each other. The main thing here is how the percussion mechanism works.

If we are talking about an electromagnetic mechanism, it is based on the action of an electromagnetic pulse. The impulse causes the core of the perforator to reciprocate, which, in turn, rhythmically hits the end of the drill. In a tool with a pneumatic percussion mechanism, the same actions are performed by air pistons mounted in a special cylinder.

The design of most modern perforators suggests fastening in the cartridge a large number of various drills and nozzles.

With their help, you can perform a wide range of drilling, drilling and assembly operations.

Meanwhile, similar functions are performed by the impact drill. But it differs from the perforator in construction. First of all, the perforator has more power and greater functionality. This circumstance makes it more preferable when choosing, especially if large volumes of construction work on solid surfaces are planned.

Features punch

The main features of the punch.

Unlike the action of the independent percussion mechanism of the perforator, the percussion drill drills through the interaction of two ratchets in contact with each other. Due to the design features and the limited dimensions of these parts, they are not capable of transmitting a borax with such an amplitude of shock-translational movements, which would be sufficient for easy and fast drilling of holes in particularly hard materials.

For this reason, you have to press the hammer drill much more than the puncher during operation. This is one of the reasons for the accelerated blunting of the drill or drill. The contact of the ratchets also contributes to the failure of the drill - due to the constant engagement, their teeth wear out quickly. If not to change these details, the drill from a shock will soon turn into usual.

But the perforator, due to the autonomy of the action of its percussion mechanism, is in fact deprived of this disadvantage. And although it is larger, heavier and, as a rule, more expensive than its “younger sister”, these disadvantages are more than compensated for by more efficient functioning and excellent work results.

In general, all considered power tools are divided into the following types:

  • by the number of operating modes;
  • the type used in the design of the drive;
  • on the used cartridge;
  • the location of the electric motor;
  • by instrument weight.
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Separation of tools by the number of modes of operation

Professional puncher

Additional functions of the professional puncher.

All perforators known for today can have one, two or three modes of operation. Depending on their number, perforators demonstrate different functionality.

Single-mode tools are not much different in their purpose from the drill, as they provide only the drilling of surfaces on relatively soft materials (metal, wood, drywall, etc.). Such devices are not very popular among professionals.

Dual-mode tools combine in work the rotation of the drill with a punch, which is the classical principle of the punch. Such a perforator, in contrast to the single-mode one, can already work hard surfaces, including concrete.

In the scheme of operation of the three-mode device, the shock mode without rotation was added to the two modes mentioned above. This is a very useful feature when it comes to the need to use a tool as a jackhammer.

It is not hard to guess: the more functional options the punch has, the more in demand this mechanism is for builders and repairmen. For this reason, manufacturers pay more attention to the three-mode tools.

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Drive type classification

Punch vibration damping

Elements damping vibration on the punch.

All tools for drilling surfaces can be electric (mains and battery), pneumatic and petrol. The meaning of such a division is that each of the perforators of a certain drive group is maximally adapted to one or another working condition.

The most common and frequently used are electric tools. Network devices are best used where there is a fixed electrical network, and the room itself is not distinguished by large dimensions. At the same time, during repair and installation work in places difficult to reach and remote from an electrical outlet, where it is difficult to stretch an electrical wire, one cannot do without a more mobile option on batteries (currently lithium-ion, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metallic electricity stores are in operation). ).

Pneumatic tools are less common. The scope of their application - fire and explosive places where accidental sparking from a source of electricity can lead to an explosion or ignition. They are also used in emergency operations under conditions of a large flow of water, which can cause a short circuit in electrical devices.

Gasoline driven rotary hammers are usually operated during road repair work. In many ways, they are close to the classic jackhammer.

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Using different types of ammo

Impact mechanism

The scheme of the percussion mechanism.

Chuck drilling tool is used to secure the working nozzles, which include all kinds of drills, crowns, drills, chisels. Most often, these mechanisms are equipped with one of two types of cartridges - SDS + or SDS max.

The cartridge SDS + is used on relatively small tools - household or light construction. In such cartridges drills (burs) with a diameter up to 20 mm fasten. For relatively small works in everyday life of such diameters, as a rule, it is quite enough.

For boers with a diameter greater than 20 mm, the SDS max cartridge is most often used. Drilling holes of increased diameter under the force of heavier professional punchers. Since the drilling of wide holes has to deal with greater material resistance than in the case of home appliances, the SDS max cartridges have an increased drill grip area of ​​cartridge wedges compared to SDS + cartridges.

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Classification of the location of the engine in the punch

Nozzles and extension cords for perforators

Types and characteristics of nozzles and extenders for the punch.

The engine, the “heart” of any perforator, can be located in the tool body either horizontally (along the impact axis) or vertically, that is, perpendicular to this axis. By what the location of the power unit, you can determine what kind of tool in front of us - a weak household or powerful professional.

Horizontal orientation of the motor indicates that it is most likely a household puncher. As a rule, it is quite compact, relatively narrow and elongated. This circumstance allows you to use it for drilling in uncomfortable narrowed places.

The same cannot be said about perforators with a vertical engine layout. They are larger and heavier than horizontal household counterparts. At the same time, professional tools are characterized by increased, compared with household, power, due to which a smaller impact load on the structure is provided. In addition, due to its vertical position, the power elements cool faster and more efficiently.

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The difference of tools by their mass

All that a huge number of very different models that are currently on the market, depending on their "weight category" can be divided into three groups - light, medium and heavy drills. The first group consists of devices with a mass of 2-4 kg, the second - instruments weighing about 5 kg, the third group - mechanisms weighing 5 kg or more.

Weight features should be considered when choosing the most suitable for a particular job punch. It matters if the punch is purchased for long-term construction and repair works. Of course, the smaller the weight of the drilling machine, the longer it can be operated without fearing that her hands quickly get tired.

But on the other hand, with a small mass of the device you should not demand too much power from it. Usually lightweight drills, which make up the majority of all existing similar mechanisms, show power in the range of 400-700 watts. Accordingly, the middle class is represented by tools with a power of 800-1200 W, and heavy punchers are characterized by power from 1200 to 1500 W.

Traditionally, light boring machines are usually used in everyday life, medium weight - for professional purposes, and heavy drills are operated only by professional builders.

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Some rules for working with a punch

No matter how structurally diverse all known perforators may be, there are several general operating rules for all of them. On this should stop.

So, during the work can not be too much pressure on the tool. Ignoring this requirement leads to breakage of the drill.

For high-quality and safe drilling, it is recommended to make several attempts, periodically cleaning the formed hole from dust.

The gearbox of the device must always be lubricated. Do not forget about the anthers.

You should always take into account the functional specifics of the punch. For work, it is necessary to select a tooling that would provide a quick replacement of working nozzles.

Despite the presence in the options of this tool, the function of the bump stop, in this capacity, it is too often not used. In any case, the hammer drill is not a jackhammer.

The tool must always and everywhere be protected from strong shocks and dangerous overheating. The operation of the device must be combined with periodic engine stops.

Only by choosing the right type of drilling machine and observing all the rules of its operation, you can achieve the most positive effect from it.

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