Making construction work, you can not do without a level to make accurate measurements of the angles on the site in accordance with the drawing. Use different types of tools, for example, bubble, laser, water. Their use helps to accurately transfer the angles of inclination from one structural element to another. The use of level or level in construction allows you to make measurements of angles of small sizes.
Work by laser level.
How to use the building level correctly
The construction level is intended to determine deviations relative to the horizontal and vertical surface. The exact level to measure is practically impossible to do yourself, you must buy it. By level they mean a thick ruler that has special “eyes” with subtle risks, in which you can see ampoules with liquid. Each of them contains an air bubble. If you compare the capabilities of the device when it is used with the characteristics of a plumb or level, then the latter can be checked only in one plane. The tool allows you to build horizontal and vertical.Back to table of contents
The principle of operation of the water construction level.
The most common bubble level. Its design has the shape of an oblong narrow rectangle having 1-3 flasks. The tool body can be both solid and hollow. The body can be metal and plastic. Deviations are determined by the presence of flasks filled with alcohol. They have a ball of air. For one flask, a demonstration of vertical error is characteristic, and for the second - horizontal.
The defining characteristic of a bubble-type device is its length, which can vary in the range from 20 centimeters to 4 meters. Each of the tools, including using a plumb and a level, can only produce certain types of work, since there is no specific model for all cases. Each device is used when performing the following types of work:
- The use of a short level allows you to install elements of small size, for example, outlets with switches, spotlights.
- The application of the average level is associated with the work of a large-scale nature, for example, associated with laying tiles.
- The two-meter level allows you to check the "flatness", if it is used as a control rail.
Using homemade hydro level.
Since the design of the bubble level is made of liquid and glass, then using this tool, you should act carefully. If the device ever fell or was hit on it, then its readings may be erroneous. After buying a tool, you must set it up. To this end, it is required to attach it to a perfectly horizontal surface.
You can achieve an accurate result if you fill a large tank with water and put a piece of foam with a flat surface on top. This position allows you to check how the air bubble is located in the capsule. If a certain error is detected, the capsule should be rotated around the axis, adjusting the level.
Applying a level, it is applied to the surface to be examined.
Next, determine the position in which the bubble with air. If it is located between the risks exactly in the middle, then this means that the surface is perfectly aligned.
In the case of a bubble deviation from the vertical to the right or left side, it is necessary to tilt the surface in this direction. If the bubble deviates downward when it is located on a horizontal surface, then it is lowered. When the bubble is deflected upward, the surface is raised.Back to table of contents
How to apply the water level
Carrying out the markup using a hydro level.
Water level is called a flexible transparent tube or hose, the ends of which are open. The cavity of the tube is partially filled with water. For proper operation of the device, the water in the device should not contain air bubbles. However, the water must be clean, which is associated with the basic requirements for the liquid used.
The device operates on the basis of Pascal's law on communicating vessels. In accordance with this law of physics, the pressure exerted on a fluid at its boundary must be transferred without changes to every point of the fluid. It is necessary to use the tool simultaneously with the measurement of quantities that have a certain error. It increases with decreasing device length.
If the size of the length of the surface is too large, then the most appropriate tool will be a hydro level. It is used when assessing the location of objects that are remote with respect to a certain horizontal plane, relative to each other.
The instrument hose can have a length that ranges from 3 to 25 meters, and both ends should be fitted with flasks. The top of the flasks with a scale is closed with a special cap. Working with the tool is quite convenient, especially when checking the level at remote points. Hydraulic level is used only for the study of horizontal surfaces. It is important not to use it near heat sources, as it is a device that is sensitive to elevated temperature.
Check the horizontalness of the lag using the construction level.
When making measurements, the flasks of the device need to be moved below or above the level, which can not be installed immediately, but only 1-2 minutes later. In fact, it is necessary to wait a while to measure the water level. It is longer when using a tool with a longer tube and a smaller diameter.
Filling the level, make sure that all bubbles containing air, were ousted. To do this, one end of the level is immersed in a bucket of water and poured. If this condition is not met, then the result will not be accurate. In general, the water level is quite easy to apply. To achieve the greatest accuracy for filling the water level using water having a room temperature. Then it will be the same for all parts of the device.
To accurately align the labels in two flasks, you will need an assistant who must attach the flask, aligning the labels on the level ruler and on the wall with the value "0". Otherwise, objects in different rooms are located on the same level. If measurements are made with an assistant, then it is necessary to move with a second bulb to a place that belongs to the same wall, but in another room and on the opposite side. When all the marks on the perimeter of the room are received, they must be connected. After that, the horizon is considered "repulsed."Back to table of contents
How to use level laser type
Points of installation of a laser level for carrying out measurements.
The laser level used in construction is an excellent substitute for mechanical tools. This modern measuring device allows you to determine various construction deviations. The principle of operation of this device is based on modern technologies. The compact laser level system is powered by finger batteries. The device is capable of projecting a laser beam at a distance of up to 100 m. At the same time, measurements that are as accurate as possible can be made at distances of 10 m.
Subdivide the laser levels according to their ability to build a direction. Certain models of tools have the ability to beat points, that is, to build directions, while others are able to build a plane, turning the beam into it. The use of cross laser levels in construction will allow to give from 2 to 10 laser lines, increasing the accuracy of measurement results. Before using the laser level, you should read the instructions for its use.
First you should practice to strengthen the structure on a tripod, belt or magnet. Often used to attach the device tripod. However, it can be installed on the floor or mounted on the wall so that the laser beam of the device can highlight the desired point or line. The main disadvantage of the laser level is its relatively high cost, which is explained by the wide range of applications and high accuracy of the device.
The device has a function that allows it to set the plane vertically or horizontally by pressing a button. When the graduation is completed, the radiation is emitted by the level of the beam in both planes, having a different angle at which the network fan opens. In order to find one or another point on the plane, the rail is installed across the beam at a selected location, which is a kind of target, so that you can make a mark where the beam passes.
When moving the rail in any direction, the plane deviations are measured. The method allows to obtain accurate results when aligning suspended ceilings, walls or floors with vertical installation of the light plane. There are models of laser levels that emit not one but a series of laser beams at the same time.
The laser level, like a level, will help even a person without experience to evenly arrange the furniture in the rooms or hang carpets on the wall. Any type of construction level requires careful operation, which is carried out correctly. This can prevent all mechanical damage to the instrument. All care should be limited to normal cleaning.