Classes and characteristics of perforators

The difference between the drill and the hammer drill is almost imperceptible, but they have different purposes. So, perforators provide a blow combined with drilling. Classes of drills determine how much the devices have and for what purposes they will be used.

Features punch

Perforators differ mainly in engine power.

Depending on the class, light punches with a weight of up to 3 kg, medium ones with a weight of no more than 5 kg, and heavy ones over 5 kg differ. A heavy hammer drill is often called a jackhammer, as it is capable of piercing holes in the surface of stone, concrete, brick, etc. without drilling. In addition, some manufacturers produce universal models, equipped with a clean drilling mode, and the usual drill chuck used for drills.

Features of device classification

Characteristics of perforators

Table of characteristics of perforators.

Each class of equipment is designed to solve specific problems. So, light punchers are often used to perform domestic work, replacing the drill. They have a rather low power. In the case when drilling wide and deep holes in reinforced concrete or stone is required, this equipment is not suitable.

Using lightweight devices, you can install a dowel or drill a hole for an anchor. There are mechanisms designed to process various materials, including not only metal, but also plastic and wood. Such models are capable of creating niches in the walls and cleaving ceramic tiles.

The capabilities of middle-class perforators depend on their equipment with a strong blow. Only in this case will they be able to break up the reinforced structures for dismantling them. At the same time, the equipment should not only crush the concrete, but also easily break the reinforcement. Quality devices are designed to work with solid stone.

Models weighing more than 5 kg, which rightfully belong to the class of heavy machines, are most often used as a jackhammer. They successfully cope with the drilling of reinforced structures, and the slotting of hard rocks.

Regardless of the model, the principle of operation of each type of device is based on the ability to deliver quick and strong blows using a fixed or rotating nozzle. The functionality of each model depends on how many modes it has.

Today, one-, two- and three-mode perforators are known. Features of single-mode drills are in their ability to perform only one action - to rotate, combining movement with a punch. Dual-mode mechanisms can combine 2 types of actions - rotation and impact. Such models are able to rotate with a punch, without a punch or punch without rotation. Equipment equipped with 3 types of actions can perform all the work that requires a variety of combinations of shock, rotation and chiselling.

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Separation of devices according to specifications

Punch elements

The scheme of the main elements of the punch.

The main characteristics of rotary hammers that determine the class of devices include several basic parameters: the energy of a single blow, the power of the engine, the diameter of the hole created by drilling, the speed of rotation of the drill, the frequency of the blow. As with the dependence on weight, the classification of perforators is thus determined, allowing the selection of equipment according to the required objectives.

The power of electropneumatic perforators can vary from 250 to 1500 watts. In this case, the most popular equipment used in the home and having an engine power ranging from 500 to 800 watts. Work with such devices does not require special skills and is available to every home master.

If a perforator is acquired to perform complex tasks, especially for industrial purposes, special attention should be paid to such an indicator as the impact energy. It occurs at the moment when one of the elements of the mechanism, called a ram, comes into contact with another element — the striker.

Calculate the value of impact, you can use a simple formula: mv2/ 2, where m is the weight of the ram, and v is its speed of impact on the firing pin. The movement that is performed drives the impact mechanism, thereby destroying the material being processed. Part of the energy is returned to the firing pin, due to which a ram rebounds to its original place.

Vibration damping in perforators

Diagram of elements for damping vibration in perforators.

Depending on the model, perforators can have impact energy values ​​equal to 1.5 to 20 J. For light perforators, these values ​​can be significantly lower - up to 1 J.

No less important is a characteristic such as the diameter of the holes obtained during drilling. Sometimes during work it is necessary to make holes of a certain diameter in a material that is difficult to process. What is important here is not how much energy the equipment has, but how quickly and efficiently it can perform the action.

In the instructions for the device manufacturers indicate the diameters of the holes obtained when drilling for steel, concrete structures and sometimes wood. Focusing on them, you can select the desired equipment. For example, the diameter of drilling in concrete is almost 2 times the diameter of the holes in the metal. But at the same time it is necessary to take into account the type of nozzle that will be used during work, a solid drill or a hollow crown. When working with a hollow crown diameter of the hole is almost 3 times larger than that obtained by the drill.

To date, all existing types of drills allow you to drill holes, the dimensions of which can vary from 4 to 160 mm. Models used in everyday life are capable of making holes with a diameter of 13 mm in steel and from 22 to 26 mm in concrete. When using a crown, the size of the holes in the concrete will be 60-65 mm.

Taking into account the fact that the equipment is inherent not only rotation, but also slotting, the drilling speed of all models is rather low. If lighter household punchers are capable of creating a speed of about 100 rpm, then for heavy devices it will not exceed 200-300 rpm.

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Additional equipment features

Sizes of slot-hole punchers

Table of sizes of slotted drills.

The classification of mechanisms is carried out depending on the type of drive and the type of cartridge. So, according to the type of drive, perforators can be electric (connected from the mains or battery), pneumatic or petrol. Battery models are mainly used only where there is no access to the electrical network. When working in conditions of increased explosion hazard, pneumatic devices are used, and for the construction and repair of road surfaces - gasoline. Both the first and second belong to the heavy class of machines and may be called jackhammers.

Sometimes models are characterized by the type of cartridge that determines the size of the tool shank. Today, SDS standard cartridges are available with SDS-plus sizes and SDS-max. The second type of cartridge is usually installed on equipment with high power and weight, so when you mention the cartridge SDS-max we can talk about a professional powerful and heavy device.

Due to the fact that the methods of operation of the perforators are quite specific, this necessitated the creation of a special cartridge that would be able to mitigate the load from impacts on the cartridge itself and at the same time allowed to quickly and conveniently change the nozzles on the tool. The cartridge, created at the end of the last century by Bosch specialists, has 2 features that fully comply with the requirements imposed on this element.

It allows you to strike the installed nozzle, while not affecting the cartridge itself, and the entire punch. You can change the nozzle with just two movements, while the assortment of nozzles that can be used during work is quite extensive. The nozzle classification includes borax, crowns, strobers, chisels and some other elements.

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Types of nozzles for equipment

Drills are used for drilling round holes. A feature of the drill is the presence of several teeth or one plate at the end of the part, which are soldered from solid material and allow you to remove chips and dust when drilling holes.

With the help of crowns ring cutting of materials is carried out, due to which the holes have a sufficiently large diameter. Material recoverable during operation remains intact. Carbide teeth, located on the edge of the tool, can be used in the processing of any material, except reinforced concrete.

The strobers, chisels, and other elements are used to make concrete and stone surfaces. In addition, in the home chisels can be used for splicing ceramic tiles from concrete substrates. For the manufacture of chisels used hard alloys of metals or tool steel.

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Terms of use and maintenance of equipment

Usually, the manufacturer's instructions describe in detail the rules for working with the device, but depending on the type of model, the algorithm of actions may vary slightly.

The basic rules are similar for all types of instruments:

Professional puncher device

Scheme of the device of the professional perforator.

  • before installing the nozzle punch must be turned off from the mains;
  • when installing the nozzle stem should be lubricated with a special grease mixture;
  • when drilling apertures with a drill, it is necessary to set a depth limiter for the nozzle penetration;
  • Drilling should begin with the maximum number of revolutions, as only they will provide an effective result;
  • when checking the operation of the equipment after switching on the network, the cartridge should rotate without impact;
  • in the case of using the drill when it is in contact with the material being processed, the pressure on the punch should not be very strong.

If all the rules of using the device are carefully followed, it will serve a long and effective. In this case, all models of equipment should be stored in a dry clean place, protected from dust and temperature changes. Before putting the drill in storage, it must be blown out of dust and crumbs and wiped with a clean cloth. Purging can be accomplished using an idling engine fan.

Great importance must be given to the timely replacement of brushes and lubrication gear. Each model of the device has its own lubrication time, usually they are listed in the manufacturer's instructions. With proper use and care, the punch will last a very long time, without requiring repair or replacement.

Today, manufacturers offer consumers a huge amount of equipment. All models meet the specified parameters and are designed to perform specific tasks. When choosing a tool in your home workshop, it is advisable to limit yourself to a light-class device that will allow you to perform simple repairs. In the punch heavy and middle class need not be. Such models are usually used for production purposes.

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