In the home workshop it is desirable to have the simplest desktop machines - drilling, grinding, etc. But if you need to perform accurate work, you can not do without a milling unit. For this, you can make a simple CNC with your own hands. This can be done in two ways:
A homemade CNC machine is required for precision drilling or cutting, as well as turning parts.
- buy a set for making a similar design;
- make such a router.
The first path is associated with certain financial expenses. Branded machines for home use have a relatively high price and not everyone can afford.
Homemade CNC router requires some knowledge and knowledge of the tool to create it.
How to start designing a homemade mill?
First you need to choose the appropriate scheme of the unit. As a basis, you can take the usual drilling machine, but instead of a drill, use a mill as a working tool. Naturally, it will be necessary to think over the mechanism of its movement in three planes. Usually for small units use recycled carriage from the printer, with which the working tool can move in two planes. This is also beneficial in terms of connecting software to work in automatic mode. But such constructions have one drawback - they allow processing wood, plastic and thin sheets of metal (1-2 mm).
Driving drive homemade machine.
Therefore, for more serious work, the CNC milling cutter must have stepper motors with increased power. They can be done by refining the standard electric motors of this class, which will eliminate the use of a helical gear while retaining all its advantages. To transfer the force on the shaft is best to use timing belts.
When using homemade carriages, parts from large printers can be used to move the working tool. Below will be described one of the homemade designs of this type.Back to table of contents
Manufacturing CNC router on its own
This machine in its design resembles samples of industrial units. It is based on a low rectangular beam, directly attached to the rails. This allows you to get the desired rigidity of the structure and to minimize the welding work when creating a router.
A metal square tube with a side of 75-85 mm was taken as the base. For attachment to the rails, it is necessary to apply the soles of the rectangular type 65 x 25 mm. This eliminates welding at this stage of work and will help in fine-tuning the router. This is also necessary for the correct setting of angles of 90 degrees. The main beam and the sole are connected using 4 screws M6, which must be tightened against the stop to obtain the desired rigidity. This will eliminate backlash, although deflection of the guides is possible under heavy loads and problems in the sliding bearings (any suitable, even Chinese ones can be used).
Scheme homemade CNC machine.
The vertical lift of the working tool is carried out with the help of a helical gear, and a toothed belt is used to return the rotation to the spindle. This makes it possible to avoid beats, lower the center of gravity of the unit and save space. The vertical axis itself is made of aluminum plate. It should be processed on a milling machine in the size needed for a homemade machine. If in the home workshop there is a muffle furnace, then it can be cast from aluminum.
Behind the axis, two stepper motors must be installed: the first rotates the vertical displacement spindle and the second provides horizontal movement. Rotation is transmitted using belts. Some parts must be ordered from a turner, if you do not have your own lathe.
After all the elements and assembly have been manufactured, it is necessary to check the CNC milling cutter in operation using manual control. After that, you need to do stepper motor controllers and software. If you do not have the relevant knowledge, you can contact the company, which has a staff of good programmers.
You may also need a bed of metal or artificial stone, which is better to order the right size.Back to table of contents
What kind of stepper motors can a home-made CNC have?
These are the most important elements of the future frezer.
Wiring diagram of the engine homemade machine.
In order to get such electric motors, it is necessary to disassemble old dot-matrix printers (for example, "Epson"). Inside such devices there are two stepper motors and good steel rods of hardened steel. To build a router it is necessary to have 3 electric motors, so you have to disassemble 2 printers.
In order to simplify production operations on a homemade machine, it is best to use engines with 5-6 control wires: they have good torque and are easy to work with. For the correct software settings you need to know the number of degrees per step, the operating voltage and the resistance of the winding.
To drive a homemade CNC, a nut and a pin are usually used. To fix the shaft of a stepper motor, a piece of thick-walled rubber cable is usually used; with it, an electric motor is attached to a stud. As clamps use homemade screw bushings. They are made of nylon using a drill and a file.Back to table of contents
You can apply home-made software: use standard drivers for controllers and stepper motors and standard power supplies. To control the machine from a home computer, you need an LPT port. As a working program, you can use Turbo CNC or VRI-CNC. CNC router is connected through the specified port by means of engines. After downloading all the programs and drivers, the correctness of the electronic support is checked.Back to table of contents
List of materials, tools and devices used in the assembly of the router
- Metal pipes of square and rectangular section.
- Stepper motors from old disk drives.
- Spindle head with chuck.
- Toothed belts and bearings.
- Screw carriage for vertical axis.
- Aluminum plate and steel bed.
- Welding machine.
- Electric drill.
- Marking tool (tape measure, ruler).
Self-made CNC milling cutter can be done if you precisely follow all the recommendations given above. This is quite a serious event, and any deviation from the above tips can lead to unforeseen consequences, and all efforts to create a router, will go down the drain.