There is an opinion that soon the whole world will switch exclusively to Chinese-made goods: they do not differ in durability, but in the event of a breakdown it is not a pity to throw them away, since the cost may be an order of magnitude lower than the European counterpart. For a real man, even such arguments cannot be an argument: try to eliminate any malfunction. About faults in electrical circuits, it makes sense to talk separately.
An electric soldering iron will help you firmly connect the parts with all the subtleties of technology.
The fact is that in 60% of cases of electrical equipment malfunction, the contacts in the circuits are to blame. The usual ability to read electrical circuits and the skills to work with a soldering iron will allow a huge number of electrical appliances to be returned to working condition.
At present, the previously familiar soldering iron is forgotten a little and forgotten in everyday life. Consider the rules for using a soldering iron and the basic techniques for working with it.
What the structure consists of
The device is an electric soldering iron.
Soldering iron belongs to the category of heating devices. It consists of a heating element (nichrome spiral) placed in a metal case, a sting, a handle and an electrical cord with a plug.
The soldering tip is made of copper, as this metal has excellent thermal conductivity and a very high melting point. For different types of soldering interchangeable tips of various shapes and diameters are used.Back to table of contents
How to prepare a tool for work and why you need a flux
Preparation of the soldering iron for work is almost the main part of the whole process. The fact is that on the metal under the influence of air and water molecules dissolved in the air, a layer of oxides is formed, which interfere with the successful soldering. Before starting work, the tip of the soldering iron is carefully cleaned with a file or sandpaper.
Adaptation to the soldering iron for soldering small parts.
The soldering iron is turned on in the network and it is allowed to warm up for a while. When the temperature reaches about 70 ° (at the tip), the sting must be tinned. It is simply immersed in any available flux. Rosin is most often used as a flux (solder additive). Currently, many radio amateurs use other fluxes designed for certain types of solder. It is no secret that often it is necessary to solder not only copper parts.
Ordinary solder and ordinary fluxes will definitely not work here. Therefore, use other consumables. Fluxes with various additives play a special role here. But such additives for the novice master are more likely to be harmful, since their use implies serious experience in soldering issues. The flux spreads along the tip of the soldering iron and creates a protective layer on it.
Overheating a soldering iron is also not recommended. If the rosin began to smoke heavily and a bluish tint appeared on the tip of the stinger, then we turn off the soldering iron, let it cool and repeat all the actions, starting with stripping.Back to table of contents
What is solder and how to prepare a place for soldering
Soldering soldering tip.
As a solder, an alloy of lead and tin is used. This is the optimal combination of metals: a low melting point and a high level of heat transfer. This means that the solder melts easily and solidifies at the soldering point very quickly. From here comes the first rule of the shareholder: everything is done quickly and accurately.
Soldering is never spontaneous. Soldering sites also need to be cleaned of oxides and put on them a thin layer of rosin. The reasons for the need for this procedure are the same as for the soldering iron itself.
Next, bring a small piece of solder to the place of soldering and press it with a hot soldering iron. Solder should form a ball of molten metal. We remove the soldering iron, after a few seconds the ball will harden. Contact will be strong and reliable. In order not to burn your hand when applying solder, use for this action any holder with heat-resistant handles. You can use the usual medical tweezers with a long holder. But it is better to use solder, which is made in the form of wire.
The edge of such a wire is brought to the place of soldering, and a soldering iron is also directed there. At the same time, it is necessary to monitor the angle of inclination of the tip to the solder: it is important that when brazing no excess amount of molten metal is formed. Firstly, it looks very inaccurate, and secondly, there is a chance that you will hit the track in the electrical circuit, which will cause a short circuit.Back to table of contents
How to learn how to solder well
To learn how to produce soldering should be on the connection of stranded wires. There are several reasons for this:
The stand for the soldering iron serves to ensure that the heated soldering iron does not touch the table or other objects.
- it does not incur any special expenses for consumables;
- not an easy task;
- Poor connections become a frequent cause of a short circuit.
About the latter: the current moves along the surface of the metal (wire). With a small load, even a thin wire (one core) is enough to supply the current enough to operate a specific electrical device. Simply put, even one thin core in the wire can work properly for a long time and not create problems for the user.
As the load increases, the number of transferred charges will increase dramatically and the current will look for ways to move, respectively, the charges will slip in places of poor-quality contact. Such minimal short circuits heat the wiring and its insulation very strongly - so it is not far from a fire. Therefore it is necessary to train to produce soldering at the joints of the wires.Back to table of contents
How to solder wire and more complex elements
Types of wire connections for soldering.
To do this, the ends of the wires are cleaned, they are immediately applied a thin layer of rosin. Now we grab a small amount of solder with a soldering iron and apply it to the junction of the wires. The reciprocating motion of the soldering iron along the joint will create in the marked place a thin layer of solder. Then everything will be easier: add solder to the place of soldering to the required amount.
After training on the wires, you can begin to solder and more complex parts of electrical circuits. Usually this requires a soldering iron with a thin sting. A piece of solder will also be very problematic to the place of soldering. A small ball of molten solder is easily transferred directly to the tip of the soldering iron. Contribute to the surface tension forces that are enhanced by rosin.Back to table of contents
Like any other tool, a soldering iron has a number of requirements for the user. The first concerns the temperature mode of use (noted earlier). Then everything concerns solely safety precautions:
- Make sure that the heated part of the soldering iron does not touch the electric wire during soldering. The sting has a very high temperature, so the insulation will be damaged in a few moments. A short circuit will follow.
- Before starting work, check the integrity of the wiring and the plug. Damage may cause the current to short-circuit directly to you.
- When working with a hot soldering iron, you must use a stand. It is usually made of wooden bar and metal holders. So you can safely place the tool and not be afraid that it will fall on combustible materials.
- Both rosin and the solder itself during melting emit a large amount of harmful substances. Nobody forces you to work in a respirator, but it is simply vital to air the room after each soldering. Every 30 minutes, take short breaks with through-ventilation of the room and do not forget to turn off the soldering iron.
- Hold the soldering iron by the handle only.
How to choose a soldering iron and equip a workplace
On sale you can find soldering irons, which are connected to the network through a transformer. Fundamentally, they are no different from ordinary soldering irons, except that it is much more convenient to work with them. By adjusting the flow of current to the heating element, you will be able to maintain the temperature of the tip in an optimal operating mode. Overheat it does not work. This will be indicated by boiling droplets of rosin on the tip. This is a clear sign that the temperature is ideal for soldering. The usual soldering iron has to constantly monitor to protect it from overheating.
To work as a soldering iron was the most convenient, it is recommended to properly organize the workplace. At the place of soldering should not be foreign objects. The workplace should be brightly lit. It is recommended for this to use a height-adjustable desk lamp. Good for flux and solder to have special containers.
You may need acid during the soldering process. It is usually used to prepare steel surfaces to be soldered. For ordinary steel solder is not taken. The surface must be cleaned and treated with a concentrated acid. During the reaction of the acid with the metal, a layer with a less rigid structure is formed on the surface, which allows the solder to obtain more reliable contact with the material.
Acid should not always be at hand, but space should be provided for such a container. Everything should be in place. And it will be more convenient to work, and consumables will be more economical for you.
The storage place of the soldering iron and consumables must be isolated from children.
Their curiosity knows no boundaries, so the soldering iron should not be in the access zone. It is better to hide this device along with all consumables. For such purposes, it is recommended to use a special case, where everything necessary for soldering will be stored. We will complete the case with a knife, pliers, pieces of wiring of different sections, and the set for the real master is almost ready.