Sometimes the question arises how to solder without a soldering iron, because brazing is the most common way to connect small parts at home. But what to do when it is necessary to quickly connect the wires, and the soldering iron is broken.
The soldering iron is a convenient and simple tool. With it you can connect small items at home.
The soldering iron is a simple and convenient tool. How to connect metals with it, probably, everyone knows. But how to solder without a soldering iron, when there is no electricity - this is a question that should be considered in more detail.
Tinning without a soldering iron
Tinning is the preliminary application of a thin layer of solder to the surface of the parts to be joined. It is produced to improve electrical contact and improve the quality of soldering.
Tinning can be performed without a soldering iron. To do this, prepare a small metal trough. The size of the best metal lid jars, for example, from under the instant coffee. Small pieces of tin-lead solder POS60 (even better - pure tin) and rosin are placed in the lid.
If you need to solder the wires, then from their ends at first the insulation is removed at a distance of about 20-30 mm. The container with solder and rosin is heated to melt the solder. As a heater, you can use a hotplate, a candle, a fire or any source of open flame. The bare end of the wire is immersed in the molten rosin so that the flux covers the entire surface. Then, the treated area of the wire is placed in the solder melt for 2-3 seconds. After removing the wire from the melt with a quick movement of the hand, with the help of a rag, excess solder is removed. On the surface of the wire should remain a thin uniform layer of tin.
If it is necessary to tint a section of a flat part, then finely planed solder and a small piece of rosin are poured on its surface. The flame for heating is brought from the bottom of the part, under the soldering section. After melting, the solder is ground on the surface with a steel rod. Excess weight is removed with a rag. Rosin is not used when tinning a steel part. The soldering section is thoroughly treated with soldering acid. The process of tinning itself is similar.Back to table of contents
Soldering wires without using a soldering iron
The question of how to solder without a soldering iron for copper wires with a cross section of up to 0.75 mm² is easily solved. The tinned ends of the wires are twisted together. The soldering section is heated until the solder layer melts. As a heater, it is necessary to use a source of narrow flame: a candle, a lighter, matches. Solder applied to the surface during the tinning process should be sufficient for soldering wires.
If you need to solder the wire to the middle of another wire, then its end should be wrapped around the junction (2-3 turns) or grasp this section, bending the wire 180º. The soldering itself is made similar to the connection of the ends of the wires.
Aluminum dishes are recommended to be soldered with special tin and lead solder.
When soldering larger wires, the mass of tin in the tinned layer may not be enough for a reliable connection. In this case, it is necessary to pour finely grated solder on top of the twisted section and heat it until it melts and fills the gaps in the twist. So you can solder copper wires with a diameter up to 2 mm without a soldering iron.
Sometimes it is necessary to solder the wire to a flat surface. To do this, the end of the wire and the surface area of the part (body) are pre-tinned. The wire is pressed against the plane of the part, and fine solder is poured onto the soldering area from above. Heating the bottom parts, provide the melting of tin.Back to table of contents
Features of soldering in the gutter
Soldering wires with a diameter of up to 3 mm can be made without a soldering iron using a groove. Such a groove is made of aluminum foil with a thickness of about 0.8 mm. Soldering is performed in the following order. Isolation is removed at the ends of the wires to be connected over a length of about 30 mm. The bare ends are twisted together or laid in parallel.
The foil is cut in the form of a short strip with a width equal to the width of the connection area, and is bent in the form of a groove, covering the butted wires. In the groove poured evenly crushed solder and rosin. One end of the foil tightly wrapped around the area to be joined so that the solder does not spill out. When working using pliers with thin noses. The area covered with foil is heated by a candle, cigarette lighter, etc. until the solder melts. After the mass hardens, the foil is removed.
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If necessary, the excess solder is removed with an emery cloth or a file.
Soldering dishes or containers
The device is a homemade soldering iron.
Very often there is a need to solder a small hole in the pan or bucket. If the hole is no more than 6-7 mm, soldering can be made without a soldering iron. It is enough to use solder POS60. The area around the hole must be carefully treated with emery cloth inside the container so that the hole is tapered (with expansion into the container). Then this area is treated with hydrochloric or soldering acid. A small thin plate is placed at the bottom of the hole to prevent solder leakage. Crushed solder and rosin are poured into the hole inside the container. Capacity is placed on the source of directional fire. Molten solder solder hole.
If you need to solder aluminum dishes, you should prepare a special solder in advance. You can use one of the formulations: tin and zinc in the ratio of 4: 1; tin and bismuth in a ratio of 30: 1 or tin and aluminum in a ratio of 99: 1. Such alloys can be prepared only at high temperature by mixing the melt.Back to table of contents
Required tools for a soldering iron from a clip: 1 –autogenic lighter, 2 - metal clip, 3 –pliers, 4 –slotted (flat) screwdriver.
You can solder the wire or radio component without a soldering iron using soldering paste. Such pasta is prepared with your own hands. To obtain a paste "tinol" in an enameled container 32 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid is poured and mixed with 12 ml of water. 8.1 g of zinc is added to the liquid, and after its dissolution - 7.8 g of tin. After the end of the chemical reaction, water is evaporated to form a pasty composition. Further operations should be carried out in china. 7.4 g of lead and 14.8 g of tin, as well as 10 ml of glycerin, 7.5 g of dry sal ammoniac, 29.6 g of zinc in the form of dust and 9.4 g of rosin are added to the paste as a powder. The added substances are preheated and mixed in the form of powder.
Soldering wires or parts are made in the following order:
- The soldering section is cleared.
- Paste on it with a brush.
- The soldering section is heated on the flame of a spirit lamp or a candle until the paste melts.
When soldering small radio components or thin copper wire, a slightly different composition can be used: 7.4 g of lead powder, 738 g of zinc dust, 14 ml of glycerin, 4 g of rosin, 14.8 g of tin powder. The pasty state is achieved mainly in two ways: by mixing with glycerin or with a solution of 10 g of rosin in 10 ml of diethyl ether.Back to table of contents
Homemade soldering iron
In places where there is no electricity, you can use a homemade analog of a soldering iron. To do this, you need to find a copper rod (wire) with a diameter of 4-5 mm and a length of about 10 cm. One end of the rod is ground in the form of a screwdriver, and the other is fixed in a wooden handle. Such a round handle is easy to cut from a tree branch. Such an elemental soldering iron is heated by an open flame. The process of soldering itself is not much different from soldering an electric soldering iron. It is only necessary to adapt the heat-resistant stand, in which the device is installed when heated. Installation must be done quickly - with one hand movement. Solder and rosin should be in a flat container. The soldering of the wire or other parts is made in the immediate vicinity of the heat source.Back to table of contents
A few tips on how to use a homemade soldering iron
In the general case, brazing is a compound of two metals with the help of another molten metal. Such a metal, called solder, must fill the space between the parts and grab onto the surface of the materials being joined.
As a solder, tin-lead alloy with different tin contents is most often used; the more tin is in the alloy, the lower its melting point. Thus, the common solder of the POS40 brand (tin content is 40%) melts at a temperature of 230ºС, and POS60 (60% tin) - at 180ºС. The tin-lead alloy with the introduction of bismuth (PV33 grade solder) - 130ºС has an even lower melting point. When soldering aluminum, special alloys are required with a melting point of more than 400ºС. Standard tin-lead solders are realized in the form of rods or wires with a diameter of up to 2 mm.
The soldering cannot be carried out without cleaning the parts in the joint zone from the oxide film. For this, it is necessary to use flux, i.e. a substance that during soldering does not form an oxide film. When connecting copper parts, rosin is usually used as a flux. Cleaning the surface of the workpieces can be done with soldering acid or other acids (for example, phosphoric acid in relation to aluminum soldering). If it is necessary to solder steel products or galvanized parts, then the rosin will not help, here you should use soldering acid. Modern wire solder type PIC has rosin inside itself, which provides soldering of copper without additional flux. For the connection of steel and nichrome elements sometimes use a flux, made according to the "popular recipe" - aspirin.
A generalized mechanism for soldering metals is as follows. The connected parts are tightly pressed to each other. Solder and flux are introduced into the soldering zone. The soldering section must be heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the solder and flow into the gap between the metals. Before hardening, it is necessary to ensure that the melt is in the gap. Usually, the whole process is easily done with a soldering iron, but you can solder parts without it. For this, the most important thing is to find an alternative heater that does not use electricity.Back to table of contents
If you need to solder a wire or something else without a soldering iron, you need to prepare the following tool:
- thin nose pliers;
- emery sandpaper;
As a source of fire, you should use a spirit lamp or a lamp on dry alcohol.
The question of how to solder without a soldering iron, only at first glance it seems absurd. Such soldering can be done in very simple ways, and can be done qualitatively using solder paste.