Sometimes homemade craftsmen wonder why an electric soldering iron works poorly, even recently purchased. This is often explained by the fact that his sting burns during the operation, being covered with a layer of soot, and the solder does not want to stick to it. Many, of course, know that it is necessary to remove soot and bite the soldering iron tip, but do not follow all the rules of work. It does not always take into account the features of soldering irons of various designs.
It is safe and convenient to work with a soldering station due to the fine adjustment of the operating temperature.
For quality work, the following instruments, tools and aids are needed:
- electric soldering iron with stand;
- file, sandpaper;
- stationery knife;
- pieces of old terry towel;
- foam sponge;
Specificity of domestic electrical appliances
Photo 1. The design of the soldering iron.
The soldering iron chosen should correspond to the nature of the work to be done. It is no coincidence that they differ in their power. A weak device will not be able to warm up large areas of soldering enough, and an overly powerful one will overheat and burn metal.
The principle of choosing the right electric soldering iron is this: the more voluminous the parts to be taken into work, the more powerful the device is needed.
Thus, the installation of small electronic circuits carried out with soldering irons from 4 to 18 watts. To work with printed circuit boards, their power varies from 25 to 60 watts. And large parts, body or chassis need to be soldered only with electrical appliances from 50 to 120 watts.
Refinement soldering tip.
In ordinary domestic soldering irons (see photo 1), the temperature to which the sting is heated is not regulated and can reach + 450 ° C. Such a high temperature is often not only unnecessary, but also harmful. Touching rosin resembles a volcanic eruption. The soldering is of poor quality, and the acting body of the appliance, quickly wearing out, fails.
For ordinary household needs, of course, a simple cheap soldering iron is quite suitable. And it is better to acquire the first soldering skills, starting with such a device. But if you have to perform fine work, then it makes sense to purchase a so-called soldering station.Back to table of contents
Advantages of soldering station
Its design provides a thermostat, through which you can set the desired temperature of the sting. It is powered by a compact mini-transformer, which gives a low voltage from 12 to 36 V, so it is much safer to work with a soldering station. In addition, due to the galvanic isolation, no network electromagnetic pickups penetrate soldered electronic components, for example, types of diodes that are particularly sensitive to them.
Schemes of temperature controls of the soldering tip.
In addition, a reddish-red copper tip is used in domestic soldering irons. Copper has excellent thermal conductivity, but it has a significant drawback: from contact with air, it is extremely rapidly oxidized. And a very thin film of copper oxide on the sting, so that it rejected tin or its alloys.
The problem is that fluxes - means for removing films on the surfaces of soldered parts - corrode not only oxides, but also sting copper itself. In addition, it is gradually dissolved solders. And over time, the working body of the soldering iron is not recognized: it is completely in the hollows, irregularities. Because of them the sting now and then you have to sharpen. When using rosin - sometimes weekly, and using flux without rosin - almost an hour later.
In Japan, China, the United States and other countries, this deficiency was eliminated long ago by releasing long-lasting, fireproof stings. They can immediately be distinguished from domestic by brilliant white color. This color gives them a thin protective layer of nickel, but the base of the sting is all the same copper.
Soldering soldering tip.
When working with such a tip, the solder does not roll on it, but goes exactly to the place of soldering. Handle the soldering station should be very careful, without making a coarse physical effort. Otherwise, you can easily damage the nickel protection of the sting, and because of the exposed areas of copper it will soon become unusable.
Hakko, Pace, Ersa, Weller, Antex, Adcola, and Ungar soldering stations are distinguished by a thicker coating and last much longer, but they are much more expensive than Chinese products. The sting of the Goot series (Japan) has a special strength, the copper core of which is covered with a thick double layer: first, steel, and then aluminum. But even such an “eternal” sting cannot be left without protection either — it must be under a thin layer of solder.Back to table of contents
The rules of tinning copper core
Forms sharpening the most common soldering tips of a unified series.
So, in order to be able to solder parts qualitatively and quickly, you should cheat the tip of the soldering iron (see video). Beforehand, the tip of a new device or one that has already been in operation should be cleaned with a file and sandpaper to a high gloss. And completely - and its open part, and located in the body of the soldering iron. By the way, it is desirable to lubricate the inner part of the stinger with thermal grease - it improves thermal conductivity and facilitates the subsequent extraction of the tip.
Then the soldering iron is heated, periodically checking the state of rosin with a tip. In a container with molten rosin put a small piece of solder. Then they quickly lower the sting cleaned and wiped with a wet cloth, placing it under a piece of solder.
In this case, the liquid rosin cleans the core from the copper oxide, and the melting solder immediately tin it. It is not necessary to save rosin - if there is not enough of it, the solder will be unevenly distributed over the tip surface, in tubercles. And you need to ensure that its layer is uniform.
Then it remains only to quickly remove excess coating, wiping the sting with a wet towel.
And henceforth it is necessary to ensure that it does not heat up above + 300 ° C, otherwise the core will oxidize again and all works will be useless.
Some craftsmen vary the temperature by connecting a dimmer to the soldering iron, which controls the power of the room lighting.
To bludgeon the sting of the device, experienced craftsmen use solder of the POS-40 brand (with 40% tin) in the form of thick rods, which are usually flattened before work. The POS-61 solder is less desirable - it melts more easily, so its layer on the core burns out much faster. It is most convenient to put solder on the sting with a second, more powerful soldering iron.Back to table of contents
The rules for the tinning of a fireproof core
With such a sting should be treated with special care. If the copper tip can be cleaned with a file, sandpaper, then it can never be done with non-combustible. It can only be wiped with a piece of wet terry towel, or even better, either with a special sponge or with a wet foam sponge with which the housewives wash the dishes. If it is wetted with glycerin, it will not dry out for a long time.
Photo 2. Solins TTC-20 preparation is necessary for tinning old and badly burnt cores.
There is also a special cleaner of the fireproof tip, which is a tangle of brass chips. From time to time the sting is inserted into such a tangle, oxides remain in it, excess solder. They are removed from the inverted cleaner by lightly tapping the table.
The degree of heating of the tip can be judged by the quality of the soldering. If the temperature of the sting is optimal, it has a brilliant appearance and smooth, clear contours. When the soldering iron is red-hot, the solder spreads over the part and the soldering just does not work. If the device, on the contrary, is not heated enough, then the soldering has a matte, vodozdrevatny appearance, and its strength is extremely low.
Finally, there is another option: the drug Solins TTC-20 (see photo 2). It is intended for the tinning of old, badly burnt cores, which cannot be cleaned with special sponges or fluxes with solders. The composition of this tool includes ammonium phosphorus, tin in the form of the smallest powder and binding ingredients.
The soldering iron is heated to approximately + 300 + 350 ° C, the sting is dipped into this preparation at an inclination of about 45 ° and gradually rotated. The composition begins to melt, at the same time cleaning and serving the core. After that, the excess tin, along with the slags, is removed with a wet sponge. If the desired result is not achieved the first time, the procedure is repeated. Solins TTC-20 is a simple but effective tool, when working with it no harmful fumes are emitted, in addition, it increases the life of the soldering iron.