In order to cook correctly, there are many technological issues and nuances, the main of them is the corresponding electrode position during welding.
Welding should be carried out with protective clothing.
Welding is a process in which a solid one-piece connection of 2 parts is obtained by melting their edges. Modern technologies allow welding both identical and completely different materials, for example, metal and ceramics.
You can weld in different ways, but arc welding has become most common in the domestic environment, where the process takes place due to the operation of the electric arc. The arc is created between 2 electrodes, one of which is a product that is welded. The whole process takes place at a high temperature, it reaches 7000 ° C, and this allows you to melt almost any metal.
The welding machine has 2 cables, at the end of one there is a clip, and at the end of the second - the holder into which the working tool is installed. When the apparatus is in operation, an arc forms between the electrode and the part. In this case, a lot of heat is emitted, the metal melts, due to which a reliable and durable connection of parts occurs.
In order for an electric arc to appear, it is necessary to touch the part for a short time with the tip of the tool and then take it 3-4 mm from it.
A metal rod is used as a working tool, which is covered with a special compound from above. The standard electrode length is 30.35 cm, and its diameter is from 18.104.22.168.3.25 4, etc.
Metal welding scheme.
Welded joints can be angular, T-shaped, docking, overlapping and others. According to their location, they are horizontal, vertical and ceiling. The welding seam can be made in one or several passes. It can be point or continuous.
If you are a beginner and have never done this work before, then the information on what the position of the electrode should be during welding should be considered from the very beginning.
Welding technique: basic concepts
In order to begin to carry out welding work, you must first give the appropriate position of the electrode, ignite it and hold the arc of the electrode during welding. For a young welder, ignition of the arc can cause certain problems, but over time they disappear.
The second important value during the exercise is the position of the electrode during welding. This moment is emphasized during the study and at the beginning of the welding. Having received the necessary experience, the welder no longer pays attention to the position of the electrode during welding, his main focus is on what happens during welding in the weld pool. The position of the electrode during welding for a novice welder is a very important learning step.
At the third stage of training, after a person can make the correct position of the electrode, one must learn to break the arc of the electrode during welding, that is, to finish the welding seam.Back to table of contents
Learning to light an arc
Electrode ignition methods.
Ignite the electrode is a professional expression of welders. Although it would be correct to say - ignite the welding arc. This process is performed in order to check the brand of working tool, amperage and prepare for the welding.
There are 2 ways in order to ignite the arc, among themselves they differ in the type of movement and they have a different electrode position.
- Installation of the electrode during welding is carried out so that it is ignited by touching it to the metal.
- In this method, the working tool is striked for metal.
These methods are similar to each other, their use depends on the welding technique chosen by the welding electrode, and this depends on the working conditions and his personal professional experience.Back to table of contents
Touch arc ignition
Electrode position when welding parts.
With this method, the arc ignites due to the metal touching the working tool. The rule provides for such an installation of the electrode during welding, so that it is located vertically and you can touch the metal with its end. As soon as an arc appears when it touches the metal, it is necessary to start moving the working tool, otherwise it will stick.
If the electrode sticks during welding, it begins to heat up. To correct this error, the welding technique suggests the following. It is necessary to change the position of the electrode, for which it bends and breaks off from the point of sticking. After this action, a visor may form at the end and further work will be difficult. Therefore, if a visor appears, it must be knocked down. To do this, just hit the working tool on a solid horizontal surface.
The use of this method of installation of the electrode during welding requires a certain work experience from the welder; therefore, it is not recommended for a novice welder to use it.Back to table of contents
We light up the arc in the way of chirping
Ways to finish welding.
This option is more common and by the way of its execution is similar to how you light a match on a matchbox.
This method is considered more simple and therefore suitable for a novice welder. The touch is held in a short time, and the already lit instrument moves back. Everything is performed in one smooth movement, the direction of which does not change it. In the previous method of ignition, the process was divided into 2 stages, in which the working tool moved in different directions.
The disadvantage of this method is that it is often necessary to start an arc in a hard-to-reach place. That is, the instrument cannot be given the correct position for performing the strike-off; it is necessary to ignite the arc only by touching.Back to table of contents
Possible errors that prevent the arc from starting
The table of characteristics of the electrode
It happens that it becomes very difficult to start an arc. It depends not only on what position of the instrument during operation you accept, there are other reasons.
Reasons for failing to start an arc:
- Bad contact "mass." It is necessary to check whether you installed it correctly.
- The presence of paint on the metal makes it impossible to ignite the arc. If the paint layer is small, then it can be pierced by a sharp blow. After the formation of the arc will create a high temperature, the paint will begin to burn out and will no longer be a hindrance. It is better to remove the paint from the seam, so it will be much easier for you to work.
End of welding
An important stage of welding is the end of the weld. At the end of the work immediately break the arc can not. It is necessary to raise the working tool from the weld pool, then go back along the seam a few millimeters back and only then quickly take it to the side.
You can finish the weld seam in another way. At the end of the weld, the arc is cut off and immediately lit in the center of the crater, and then the tool is slowly shifted to its edge. Depending on the situation, the offset is performed by 10-15 mm. After the required height of the weld is made, the position of the tool is changed during operation and taken to the side.Back to table of contents
Ways of position of the working tool
Patterns of movement of the electrodes during welding.
One of the important parameters during welding is the position of the electrode. This parameter is important for beginners, as for professional welders with extensive experience, the installation of the electrode is developed to automatism.
There may be situations in which welding work must be carried out in hard-to-reach and inconvenient places, then the welder can choose any position of the tool, which will allow him to perform the above-mentioned work with high quality and convenience.
Installation of the tool during welding may be as follows:
- Technique in which the tool keep the "angle forward." It bends at an angle of 30-60 ° and moves forward from the welder. This method is suitable for vertical and horizontal ceiling joints; it can also be used if it is necessary to make fixed pipe joints.
- The tool is held at an angle of 90 °. In this way, you can make any seams, as well as seams in the operating windows and in places where it is not possible to tilt. This method is more difficult than working, holding the tool at an angle.
- The tool can also be kept at an angle of 30-60 °, but it moves towards the welder. This method is convenient when it is necessary to make angular and butt joints, and is used on short sections.
Since the work is performed using electricity and at high temperatures, there is always a chance of injury. You can be injured due to burns, electric shock, or you can get a retinal injury from bright light.
Before you start, check the quality of all connections, be sure to zero the power supply case. The holder must be working and have intact insulation.
Working without a protective mask is strictly prohibited; it is necessary to choose the right filter for it. It is considered normal if you see a 1-2 cm seam in the light of the arc. If you see more seam, the filter is weak, and if it is smaller, then it is very strong.
It is necessary to wear special clothes and shoes, it is made of tarpaulin. Thus, you protect yourself from getting burned.
By following these recommendations, even a beginner will be able to do simple welding work, and over time, having gained work experience, you will be able to do any welding seams with high quality and quickly.