Chisel is called carpentry tools, through which the possible sampling of wood in difficult places, chamfering and trimming wood in the processing of furniture.
All types of chisels by appointment are divided into: carpentry, carving on wood, turning.
Chisel difference from chisel
The chisel is in demand where it is necessary to gouge deep grooves and sockets. The device looks like an elongated bar of metal, mounted on the handle. The end of the bit handle is looped in by a crimp part that protects the handle from splitting.
Techniques for cutting with a chisel: a, b, c — trimming and stripping of tenons, sockets, grooves, g — cutting grooves, d, e — chamfering, f, g, and — processing curved surfaces.
The chisel, representing the manual device for woodworking, is represented by a sharpened lamellar steel element with a handle. In other words, the chisel construction is a sharpened blade with a handle (wooden or metal).
A chisel with a chisel differs in the angle of the sharpened chisel, the absence in the length of the working element of a 2-sided chamfer relative to the sharpened side. Another difference is the substantial d of the metal core of the bit. Therefore, to confuse these two tools of a carpenter is completely unrealistic.Back to table of contents
All types of chisels by appointment are divided into:
- threaded wood;
Chisel cutting scheme: 1 - chips, 2 - billet, 3, 4 - cutters.
There is another division:
- according to the movement variant in the thickness of the material;
- the shape of the handle;
- to size.
The basis for the breakdown of tools into groups also take:Back to table of contents
The principle of operation of devices
The movement of the chisel in the thickness of the material occurs due to a brief tapping of the handle with a special percussion instrument: a mallet or a hammer.
This type of handheld gadget is popular in the processing of solid wood varieties, when enormous physical strength is required.
Devices are equipped with an elongated handle and a cutting element. Using a chisel, it is held in the hand, and the other performs a uniform tapping on the handle. Strengthens the device handle loop. For more effective procedures, use a hammer made of rubber or polyurethane.
Another type of chisel is a long-handled but short cutter. Their purpose is to manipulate with two hands when moving an instrument.
Chisels (a), flat (b) and semicircular (c) chisels: 1 - canvas, 2 - cap, 3 - handle, 4 - ring.
Work with such devices lead to soft varieties of wood. The smooth tip of the handle is round in shape with the convenience of being placed in a fist. It is possible to introduce a rubber hammer into the work when the density of the wood is large and it is necessary to improve the movement in the rock mass.
Produce varieties of chisels, the movement of which in the thickness of the material is produced exclusively with the help of hands. They are shorter and thinner than other options. Movement through the material is influenced by the angle of sharpening of the tool and the amount of work (dimensions of the area to be processed). Professional cutters and inlays work with such types of fixtures.Back to table of contents
The shape of the cutting surface
The shape of the cutting surface is divided into:
The direct form of the work item has no distortion. A tool with a flat profile across is divided by width and thickness, by bending or straight cut.
A frequently encountered type of fixture is a radius, the cutting element of which is represented by a segment of a circle. When choosing this variety, a small check is carried out: the chisel at the end position when turning should outline a full circle around its axis. Such an adaptation of the universal principle of action will allow carpentry with ease and precision.
A box-shaped or a ring-shaped variety is a tool, on the cutting element of which there are ravines of different height.
Corner chisels - their profile resembles V in Latin. The main criterion here is the height of the face of the angle and the angle itself at 90º.
Longitudinal shape of the cutting part:
Klukarza has a steep bending of the cut, starting to bend closer to the end of the tool blade.
Curved type endowed with full longitudinal bending of the blade. In this case, the surface is curved along the entire length, and not just in one part of it, like in cranberries.Back to table of contents
Learning to work properly chisel
Working as a chisel is a difficult and time-consuming task that should be learned. For manipulations apply the force from pressing the hand. But when there is little power in the hands, and the effort is required to be given substantial, in such cases it is appropriate to use a mallet. A mallet is called a joiner's hammer, made of solid wood. The chisel in a pair with a mallet is used only at the moments of hammering. For stripping and trimming procedures, it is permissible to wield the same chisel.
Before starting the work, a device is applied markings for the shape of a hole, socket or recess. The tool size is selected in accordance with the forthcoming scope of work and the size of the slotting point. For ease of use, the slotting device is clamped in the left hand, and a mallet is taken in the right hand. Through the chisel, light knocking is applied, which, when deepened into the thickness of the material, intensifies.
Joiners-professionals and carvers, as well as home craftsmen in wood, when working with a device, always adhere to a specific scheme. First of all, a pencil sketch is drawn on the wooden blank. Then, along the contour, a recess is cut by a knife blade for wooden carving. Only after a clear designation of all contour lines by means of a knife proceed to the manipulation of the chisel.
Chisels with replaceable blades.
Methods of application of the tool is determined based on what type of processing should be performed. As noted above, there are 2 of the most requested:
- Manual gain. For example, it is used when trimming the edges of a wooden part.
- Gain from the blow of another tool (hammer, mallet). It may be demanded for obtaining additional efforts in the process of gouging recesses or holes in wood.
Tools should be used with extreme precision and accuracy. After all, it is easy to spoil a product by pressing on the handle or, on the contrary, without finishing it. One unsuccessful knock with a hammer or one awkward movement - and all the work will be a waste, you have to start all over again.
The carving technique used by the master depends on the direction in which the chisel is located in relation to the surface. Consider each in more detail.
Chisels for turning.
- Trimming - the master performs work along the fibers. If you need to quickly get rid of irregularities on the edges of the wooden blank, use a chisel. The tool is guided with a non-coated surface of the web upwards. Control while doing two hands. When performing trimming, one hand is put on the handle, and the other is held onto the tool canvas so that the direction of the thumb goes toward the handle. This position of the hands creates precise control over the movements of the instrument and makes it possible to impart more effort. There is a secret here: in order to obtain a perfectly smooth and smooth surface as a result, when cutting wood along the fiber, the device is rotated a little, and the flat edge should always set the direction of the master's actions.
- Carving on the sides. A variety is a sample of grooves. To obtain a groove in the shape of a rectangle resorted to using flat devices. The latter straight work item has a transverse flat section. The cutting edge is sharpened sharply, it can be both straight and obliquely. In most cases, the chisel has a sharpened edge on one side only. This implies that according to the rules of a sharpened blade tool resembles a razor blade. For selection of grooves in a circle use a semi-circular devices. Their work item has a cross section like half or a quarter of a circle. Properly work chisel in the transverse direction to the wood fibers. Hold the tool in the same position as when cutting. In this case, the cutting edge should be located at a certain angle to the surface. So incised several times. Then, the notches are chosen completely groove. Such manipulations are reproduced repeatedly, slowly moving in depth to the desired level.
- Trimming the ends (thread perpendicular) suggests a different arrangement of the hands on the tool. The handle covers one hand, and the chisel blade is clamped between the index finger and the thumb of the second hand. This ensures control over the course of the device and the accuracy of each movement. The part of the blade closer to the master serves as a guide. Cutting the ends of wooden billet lead from the far corner. The tool is directed forward and down. When pressing on the blade with your thumb and lowering the chisel down by the handle, you get a fairly smooth cut. Such manipulations require great effort. Thin cuts of wood are performed once.
When handwork chisel immediately remove a lot of material is not necessary. Excess wood is cleaned gradually along the intended line.Back to table of contents
When you can not do without a hammer
Tool for sharpening chisels.
In order to gouge and felling, both chisels and mallets are used at the same time. For both procedures, the mallet is held in one hand, and the chisel is placed perpendicularly in the second hand. When hitting a chisel with a hammer, it is simultaneously rotated. Achieving in such a way that the end of the tool is always in the right place.
They produce special tools that are intended just for slotting, their name - chisel-chisel. Manufacturing companies that have similar products - MATRIX and KIRSCHEN. The handles of such devices have necessarily anti-shock properties and high strength, because they will often take a hard load.
In contrast to the gouging procedure, in the process of cutting can be faced with some difficulties. A chisel can be cut, for example, recesses under the door hinges. Any modern door between the layers of wood has a layer of hardboard or MDF. Due to it, it is possible to avoid warping (shape change). But with insufficient drying of wood, even such a measure will not save.
Hinges have to sit down a little. To set the hinge depth, material is chopped along the direction of the fibers by striking the chisel with a hammer. Each specialist chooses the direction for felling independently, being guided by personal convenience, from himself or herself. The chisel is kept as accurately and accurately as possible so as not to spoil the material and not injure itself.
When coming closer to the markup, try to chisel after knocking springs back. For what blows with a hammer perform with a delay. When sampling wood at the edges at the markup, the malt is not used, they are operated manually, adding a little more effort to eliminate excess material.
Important: when the wood has flaws (knotty, crookedness - irregular arrangement of fibers), in such defective places do not very deep incisions.Back to table of contents
Chisel sharpening rules
The process of sharpening a chisel.
With the passage of time, the blades of the chisels become dull, therefore they require periodic sharpening. The old way is to sharpen a tool with a bar or grindstone. Today there are more modern options for sharpening chisels. At the same time it is possible to provide the blade with a different sharpness angle. If a too sharp blade is required, the sharpening angle will be the smallest. With ideally sharp adaptation, without a doubt, it is much more convenient to work. However, the period of its operation will not be as long (sharp blades immediately wear out). The optimum angle for sharpening a chisel is 25º.
When grinding on an abrasive machine set the desired angle. After that, the blade is fixed in the shoe, polished from the beveled side and sometimes turned over to the right, then to the left. To cool the heated metal, it is supposed to come in contact with cold water or a cooling liquid.
Do not recommend sharpening the blade at a smaller angle. After sharpening the blade on it will form a sharp edge. It is ground with a grinding stone in circular movements, turning the blade in different directions.
Now there is a complete picture of what kind of chisels are and where each variety of them is used, and how to work with this kind of tool.
Get the necessary tool in the household and learn how to use it properly.