The drill is the most often used tool when performing repair and construction works. The drill device is different from the punch mechanism. It is indispensable in everyday life and has many different functions.
The drill is used in construction and finishing works for drilling holes.
No electric construction is complete without an electric drill. Drill drill holes of the required diameter in the walls of metal, wood or concrete. Manufacturers of various models of the tool are trying to improve them, giving it an increasing number of functions. This type of equipment becomes more convenient in the process of application.
The purpose of the electric drill allows you to separate them according to different characteristics. For example, on the speed of rotation, power, the number of modes of operation. If you are going to work with an electric drill, you need to know how it works and what functions it has. The characteristics of the duration of work with the tool. Consumables that are part of the equipment in the process of working with it should be on hand. Components can be drills and drills.
What parts does a power drill consist of?
Different models of drills practically have the same types of parts included in the scheme of this equipment:
Diagram of the device drill.
- Quick-closing valve.
- Impact switch.
- Dust grating.
- Fixation for the power cord.
- Cooling fan impeller.
- Electric motor
- Reverse lever.
- Power control when tightening screws or screws.
- Fastening ammo.
- Speed controller acting as a torque limiter.
- Power cord plug.
- Self-centering hooks.
Each of these elements has its own purpose and functions that it performs in the mechanism of the drill. Some models are equipped with elements that allow adjustment of the lifting torque. In this case, the need for tight tightening of fasteners disappears.Back to table of contents
Description of the instrument control system
Diagram of the device gear drill.
The tool is equipped with a gearbox output shaft connected to a chuck where drills and drills are inserted, as well as other components and nozzles. The cartridge is provided with three self-adjusting cams - clips. You can lock and unlock the cartridge of some models with a key with a gear.
If the drill module has a keyless chuck, it is controlled by turning the cylindrical ring around the device. The item, which is called the trigger, is a switch that supplies electrical power to the electric motor. For the simplest models is characterized by the presence of a conventional switch.
The electric drill has a switch-regulator that allows you to change the speed of rotation of the drill, depending on the effort applied when you press the trigger device.
Certain models have a regulator that restricts the stroke of the trigger, which allows the choice of speed, which is optimal. For this, a round rotary knob is used. This drill function is convenient because it allows you to screw in the screw. To this end, the regulator should set the slow rotation speed.
For modern models characterized by the presence of adjustment of the speed of rotation of the drill, which is electronic. The service life of such a drill will be longer, because its speed is regulated by the system controller located on the power button. The device is equipped with a simple adjustment circuit with a small number of parts.
On the case of the drill button there is a substrate made of PCB.
The case of the power button has a substrate made of PCB, created on the basis of microfilm technology. The regulator is assembled on the case, since the board, which has a small size, allows you to place it on the body of the trigger.
The main point is the process of opening and closing in the circuit, occurring in the thyristor within milliseconds. There is no change in the voltage passing through the power supply network, since the regulator does not perform such functions. At the same time, the measuring device of a voltmeter connected to the circuit will show the changes in the alternating voltage, that is, its rms value.
Device management is import-phase. When the button is lightly pressed while the circuit is closed, the alternating voltage is the lowest. If the circuit is closed, the voltage increases as the button is pressed. When the button is pressed to the limit with a closed circuit, it is no longer open.
Electronic speed control is a circuit that is able to provide a certain speed based on the load on the drill or drill.
For safe use of the drill, the electronic adjustment system has torque compensators to avoid engine combustion. They are necessary if the drill is clamped in the material.Back to table of contents
A brief description of the functionality of the electric drill
Perform a large number of operations drill can be due to the presence of the mode of operation, which is reversible. He allows to turn out screws. There is also a shock function, which provides the possibility of drilling particularly hard materials. The presence of the trigger lock allows you to continuously and continuously work with the device.
Since the reverse mode is associated with the presence of the switch, which is located near the trigger, the drill can be used to turn out fasteners by changing the direction of rotation of the drill from the main one to the opposite.
The impact on the drill is made by the switch of the percussion mechanism.
The scheme of the percussion mechanism.
This contributes to the destruction of bricks and concrete. Impact drilling is carried out using special drills. It is important that they are securely fastened in the drill chuck. If you press the button of small size on the handle of the electric drill, you can fix the trigger so that the tool works in the mode of long drilling. Pushing the trigger allows you to lower the latch.
The collector mechanism of the electric motor provides for the inclusion of the following three elements: the armature, the stator and the carbon brushes. For the manufacture of the stator is used electrical steel, which is characterized by high magnetic permeability. The form of the stator is cylindrical, and the stator winding in the number of two, located one against the other, is laid in the grooves. The stator must be rigidly fixed in the tool body.
The rotor is a shaft having a core. Electrical steel is used for its manufacture. The part is machined by grooves located at equal distances where the anchor windings are being laid. For their creation it is necessary to have solid wires that allow the rotor to be strengthened to the plates along which the spring-loaded brushes move. This allows you to create an anchor, which is divided into segments.
A collector is rigidly fixed on the device of the shaft end. The rotor rotates inside the stator during the operation of the tool. Bearings are provided for this, they are located at the beginning of the rotor and at its end.
Modern electric drill is characterized by good ergonomics. It allows you to use the tool for a long time. Keyless chuck allows you to fix the drill in a few seconds without the use of tools. During the repair of the product, special attention is paid to collector plates. Graphite is used to compact parallelepiped brushes. Flexible electrodes are mounted in them.