As you know, the level is the most popular type of device for measuring geodetic terrain. With the help of this mechanism, differences in height between different points of a single territory are revealed. This method of measurement is also applied when determining the geometric difference of any part in the structure by leveling.
The level is used to measure geodesic terrain.
Help in the choice of a level
Before buying, first of all, it is necessary to study the types of devices and decide which level to choose: optical, digital or laser. Each type is selected based on the purpose of the level. There are several factors that influence equipment selection:
- creation of accurate geodetic structures;
- installation of technical equipment;
- predicting the degree of subsidence of the proposed construction;
- use when decorating a particular area.
The device is an optical level.
Today, the most popular type of level are automatic optical devices. First of all, this is due to the high accuracy of the device. This indicator is detected by the mean square error, which by default is denoted in millimeters. This error has a deviation of only a few millimeters, even with optical devices with low cost. The price of the levels determines the degree of increase in the review: the greater the accuracy, the higher the price of the device.
At the moment, the market offers various types of optical levels. Since the device has a simple design, the devices differ only in appearance. If the device is carefully operated, it will last a long time. This is one of the distinguishing advantages of optical levels.
As a universal measuring tool, it is better to choose an optical level. With the help of the structure of the strokes, designed for measuring long distances, you can measure the intervals between the necessary points. Built-in limb is designed for high-precision marking of corner structures. These calculations are enough to perform the necessary work in a particular area.
The work of the laser level.
Due to its versatility, optical devices are widely used in many areas. The level is used in the following cases:
- laying of leveling moves;
- carrying out industrial, geodetic and construction works;
- regulation of placement of formwork;
- measurement of the base of the building;
- the creation of the slope of the roof;
- control of the height of the object;
- prediction of subsidence of soil and buildings.
The measurement is performed using a special tripod, because without a support structure, calculations of high accuracy are not possible. All measurements are carried out by means of leveling rails with the necessary metric system (mm, dm).
The domestic market mainly offers technical levels, which have an accuracy in the range of 1-2.5 mm.
Less common are more accurate instruments (0.3-0.7 mm), which are used to calculate the accuracy of category I and II. Special measuring tips and slats are included.Back to table of contents
The digital level has an integrated drive that stores previously obtained data.
Recently, digital levels have become popular in the global market. This type of device is considered an advanced development that belongs to the category of high-tech devices.
Optical-type devices are quite far behind the digital ones in terms of automation of obtaining the required information. The latter perform the necessary calculations much faster, simultaneously calculating data with high accuracy.
Digital devices are equipped with a processor that calculates the excess of the required level. The device has an integrated drive that stores previously obtained data. All data is measured in digital format, so the human factor does not affect the result. This allows you to reduce the cost of the crew, without losing the ability to perform highly accurate calculations of the terrain.
In the course of work, it is possible to choose the most accurate result, since all the information about the survey remains in the form of a digital recording. It can be transferred to a computer, where processing will be carried out using a specially designed software.
The digital level assumes use of the special laths intended for high precision of measurements. When buying rails you need to consider that the details of other production may differ from existing ones. This is due to the size of the rails, which may have differences between them.
Digital devices are most often used in measuring landscape terrain. They are able to most accurately determine the deposition of buildings. They are used to monitor the movement of soil, which is located close to the surface of the earth. Digital devices are very useful in the construction of objects such as tunnels, suspension bridges, skyscrapers and dams.
Considering the additional details, the price of such a tool can reach up to 250 thousand rubles.
Prices for such a tool can be from 90 to 250 thousand rubles. considering additional details. The amount of cost is influenced by the amount of work to be done, the accuracy of the data and the quality of workmanship. The digital level greatly simplifies calculations when building large objects. It is an integral part of modern construction.
The choice of the level should be made taking into account the fact that an experienced specialist who knows the calculation procedure well will work with it. These requirements apply to digital and optical instruments.Back to table of contents
The latest type of levels are laser devices that are designed to be used even without the required skills and experience. Such devices are brought to the highest degree of automation, so all the work is carried out almost without human intervention. Laser levels are widespread in the field of construction, they came to replace plumb lines and levels.
All types of laser devices are divided into 2 classes:
Projection laser level is used for indoor work.
Devices vary in purpose and design features.
The first type includes levels designed for indoor use. They are able to build a plane based on laser beams. The device is equipped with a laser prism, projecting a certain number of planes at an angle of up to 110 °. The laser beam covers a distance of 25-35 m.
The terrain is leveled automatically: this happens with the help of a special pendulum, which builds a plane with deviations up to 5 °. Therefore, the influence of the human factor is completely eliminated, the device can be installed on the eye, but it will still measure the given plane with high accuracy. If the level is placed incorrectly, it will automatically turn off and give an inaccurate location signal.
The simplest laser levels are capable of projecting two-dimensional planes with only 2 rays. This is the most common type of laser device on the market today. In addition to them, there are levels, projecting laser beams in several prisms, forming a continuous plane. Such devices are designed for more complex operations. They provide the necessary information at once to several different specialists who carry out their activities on a specific object.
Projecting levels are mainly used in premises. They allow to obtain the data required for leveling the flooring, installation of guide rails, placement of suspended ceilings, arrangement of door and window openings, laying tile and installing wall furniture.
Laser rotational level is used in open areas.
Certain types of projecting levels operate on the basis of a laser receiver, which must be purchased separately. This device is required to identify the necessary plane, which can be created as a projecting and rotating device. Identify the plane can be by eye. But under such conditions as blinding sunlight or a great distance from the device, it is impossible to see the laser beam.
The main part of the receiver is a small part that is sensitive to light and radiation. If the beam falls on the desired part of the device, it signals the accuracy of calculations using LEDs and a special display.
The second type of devices creates a two-dimensional plane by means of the high-speed rotation of the laser beam. Installation of a rotational level is made using a bubble level (the simplest device) or a gyroscope (a device with high accuracy).
Such devices are used to perform work in open space. They are most often used in conjunction with laser receivers that come standard with the purchase. Receivers for rotational levels maintain a distance of up to 650-800 m distance from the device.Back to table of contents
Recommendations for choosing a level
It is necessary to approach the choice of a level proceeding from an area of its application. If you need a cheap and high-precision device designed for the general type of work, you must first pay attention to optical instruments. To select such a device does not require professional knowledge and experience in construction. This is due to the fact that they work according to a single principle, that is, they differ little.
Choosing a digital level is advisable if you need a measuring device to predict the deposition of soil surfaces and construct large buildings. In this case, you need to purchase the device from the proven manufacturers of world-class surveying devices. These include Trimble, Leica and Sokkia.
For finishing inside small rooms the laser level of projection type will be the best choice. The device is selected with orientation for the upcoming work. When buying, you need to pay attention to more expensive devices, since there are many low-quality laser levels on the market.