Holes in concrete are necessary for carrying out, installing communications. The works are characterized by an abundance of dust, noise, high labor costs, require high-quality power tools. To drill a hole in this material, it should be noted that every hole in the power frame of a building reduces its strength, is fraught with damage to the systems inside (mostly electrical wiring, ventilation ducts) and is traumatic.
The drilling pattern of the concrete wall.
Through holes with low quality tools cause shedding of adjacent sections of the walls at the exit of the drill / crown from their reverse side. Requires additional finishing, increase the time of work.
Safety in the manufacture of holes in concrete
The power frame of the building of reinforced concrete is a strong heterogeneous material. Inside it is metal fittings, gravel or crushed stone of various fractions. Therefore, to drill a hole without adherence to TB is to expose yourself and other colleagues to the risk of injury. Experts recommend compliance with the following requirements when drilling / drilling reinforced concrete structures:
- use of protective equipment - working clothes in combination with goggles / mask, petrol respirator, helmet;
- installation of fences: during through-drilling, when a worker does not see the opposite side of the wall, there is a risk of the pieces falling to passers-by or his colleagues;
- the use of reliable forests: without them, work at a height of more than one and a half meters is forbidden, because the operator’s stability is not ensured; when using the ladders, it is necessary to strengthen them with stops.
Nozzle for drilling concrete.
To drill a hole in the concrete, you need to change the speed of the drill, punch, special diamond machine smoothly, use only two-handed tools. The presence of plaster dramatically increases the risk of destruction of internal communications. Therefore, before drilling a hole in the supporting structure of a building, it is necessary to make sure that they are not present.
Drilling with a perforator in percussion mode is allowed only when a drill or drill is used as a working tool. If a crown sinks into the concrete, rotation without impact is applied. The tool is able to drill a hole, qualitatively cut the internal reinforcement, stones.
In contrast to the usual drill, which destroys the inclusions of rubble due to a blow, it is not able to drill reinforcement. To drill a monolithic wall, it is necessary to examine the location of the seams. It is in them that the internal wiring of the power cable, gas, sewer pipes are often hidden.Back to table of contents
DIY technology for making holes in concrete
Diagram of the device punch for drilling concrete.
In the process of construction and finishing of buildings, the need arises to manufacture deaf or through holes of different diameters. Blind holes are created for fasteners, their diameter is limited to 2-16 mm. At the same time, an important factor is compliance with the declared diameter. Otherwise, in the broken holes, plastic dowels for screws, nails will loosen over time, reducing the strength of fixing wall cabinets, curtains, pipelines, and decorative elements.
For drilling of blind holes of large diameter or through penetration of reinforced concrete walls, crowns are used to enter communications. They represent a cylinder, one side of which is fastened with a shank to the drill chuck, a perforator, the second one has pobedits or diamond crowns welded to it. In the middle part of the design is installed pobedit drill to give direction.
Drilling with a drill or a drill leads to the destruction of the entire volume of concrete at the point of contact of the tool with the structural material. In the presence of reinforced concrete structure inside the reinforced concrete structure, it is impossible to pass it with a drill, the hole is transferred to the side.
Drilling holes in concrete crown differs from the previous method:
- concrete is destroyed only around the perimeter of the hole;
- inside the crown remains a concrete cylinder.
Table of minimum depths for planting dowels.
Therefore, after reaching the required depth of the blind hole, the inner concrete cylinder remains connected to the wall with a rear end. To remove it from the hole, destructive methods are used: a chisel with a hammer or a hammer drill. Concrete cylinders with through-hole drilling are removed from the tool with light blows of a mallet on the body
The drilling of holes in concrete is carried out with the following tools:
- Spiral percussion drill - often used for blind holes, the diameter of carbide tip inserts is always greater than the spiral body of the tool, the shank is round, not intended for work in concrete with a perforator with SDS cartridges;
- spiral auger - instead of a zirconium or tungsten tip (spraying) is used, the shank with grooves is suitable only for SDS cartridges (Max, + modifications), dust-free, low-noise drilling is provided;
- diamond crown - a tool of large diameter exclusively for high-speed rotary drilling.
The marking of the shock-spiral drill indicates the caliber, not the diameter. This is the distance between the protruding edges of the tacks / liners. Holes are drilled with this tool in the following modes:
- 800-1200 revolutions for diameters within 4 mm;
- 300-500 revolutions for diameters of 5-13 mm.
Even the presence of the red marking of the tip of this tool does not guarantee the conformity of the material of the tip to the metal declared by the manufacturer. Cheap non-standard at the first use is formed in an incomprehensible configuration, it becomes unsuitable for work.
Zirconia, tungsten drills are suitable for the following modes of operation:
- 60-100 revolutions with a diameter of 42-76 mm;
- 150-400 revolutions for diameters 4-60 mm.
The length of the drill can reach 1 m, a small amount of dust when working with this tool allows you not to make furniture out of the room. Destructible concrete "flows" out of the hole in a trickle of spiral channels, is collected on a spreading film, paper.
Diagram of the device drill.
Professionals make blind holes for large diameter podrozetnikov in a few seconds. The home master, who does not have a regular practice of working with such a tool, most often risks damaging the crown with the slightest bias. Working modes when using crowns are 2,000-3,000 turns for any diameters. The advantage of the crown is high-quality cutting of reinforcement of any diameter, granite, basalt rubble inside the concrete at high cutting speeds.
The following modifications are related to the category of professional, highly specialized tools:
- tubular segmented tubing - difficult to work, is used by experts in areas with a high probability of the presence of thick reinforcement;
- koronchaty bur with centralizer - carbide modification, inside which is located in the center of the drill, which facilitates the setting of direction, reducing sensitivity to pressure, the distortions of the working body; These options are not suitable for cutting rebar.
The last modifications of the crowns are operated at 600-1200 rpm, when in contact with the reinforcement the teeth drop off instantly. Therefore, before drilling, the walls are carefully examined with a special tool for the presence of an armopoyas.Back to table of contents
Power tool selection
To create small-diameter holes in small quantities, an impact drill is enough, a punch with a capacity of 350 watts. Professionals engaged in distributing communications in panel houses, brick cottages on a concrete foundation, use professional rotary hammers or diamond machines.
The hole of a large diameter can not be obtained using a standard three-jaw chuck with a key, collet clamp.
With the passage of the reinforcement, the force of the clamping of granite will not be enough, the tool is guaranteed to start rolling in the cartridge, wearing the shank, cams.
Therefore, for large holes, an SDS cartridge with a diameter of 10-18 mm is required. Slotting when creating holes with a crown is completely excluded, the punch must have such a function.Back to table of contents
Features of drilling concrete structures
When using a conventional crown, water is introduced into the hole, which lowers the temperature of the working member. Some companies produce professional crowns, drilling which occurs "dry." The hole turns out the correct geometry, there is no tearing pieces of the wall from the back side. An example is the Maxima Ø3.2-20.2 cm crowns, 15-25 cm long, with and without perforation.
When drilling holes of large diameter (0.5-1.5 m), diamond cutting machines and installations are used. The hole is created by submerged sawing with a core tool. The frame is fixed on a horizontal, vertical, inclined surface, a compressor for supplying coolant is included in the package.
Smooth hole is obtained by moving the working body by the upper drive along the guides (analogue of manual tile cutter). The quality of the holes is higher than during manual drilling. The drill in this professional equipment is not used, even as a guide.